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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (56):
1

Involves the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood.

External Respiration

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Involves the exchange of gases between the blood and the cells throughout the body.

Internal Respiration

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Gases are warmed, humidified, and cleansed before entering the lungs.

Conditioned Gases

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An enzyme that destroys microbial cell walls.

Lysozyme

5

The lacrimal ducts that drains into the nasal cavity/inf. nasal conchae.

Nasolacrimal ducts

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The alternating of breathing through your nose to prevent drying up of the mucous membranes. It is done by erectile tissue which locks one side. This is done subconsciously by the hypothalamus.

Nasal Cycle

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It helps to cover the nasopharynx during eating and drinking. It is much like the epiglottis and can be seen by the naked eye.

Uvula

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They are also called vestibular ligaments and are covered by vestibular folds/false vocal cords. Found within the larynx

Superior Ligaments

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They are called vocal ligaments and are called vocal folds, also known as true vocal cords because they produce sound. Found within the larynx

Inferior ligaments

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It is the opening between the vocal folds. Air is forced through this in order for the true vocal cords to make sound.

Rima Glottidis

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The longer the vocal cords the lower the sound. As we grow older, vocal cords lengthen and our voice gets lower. Testosterone also lengthens your vocal cords.

Vocal cord Length

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It is caused by the laryngeal cartilages and vocal folds growing rapidly.

Cracking of the voice

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It forms only the anterior and lateral walls of the larynx. It is composed of hyaline cartilage. It is stimulated by testosterone and makes adam's apple.

Thyroid cartilage

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It forms the inferior base of the larynx and connects to the trachea inferiorly. It is composed of hyaline cartilage.

Cricoid cartilage

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It attaches the cricoid cartilage with the thyroid cartilage. It is about 4 fingers width above the sternal notch.

Cricothyroid Ligament

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It is an emergency airway that is opened in the larynx by making an incision through the cricothyroid ligament.

Cricothyrotomy

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It covers the trachea during swallowing to prevent food and water getting in the trachea. The trachea is moved superiorly while this moves inferiorly.

Epiglottis

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It is anterior to the epiglottis and at the base of the tongue. It serves as a spit trap and temporarily holds saliva to reduce the risk of coughing before it is swallowed.

Vallecula

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Tracheal Cartilages

The anterior walls of the trachea are supported by 15-20 C-shaped tracheal cartilages. They are completed by the trachealis muscle. These cartilages rings reinforce and provide some rigidity to the tracheal wall to make sure it stays open.

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It is the right and left branches of the trachea. The right branch leaves at a more acute angle and so the right side is more prone to have objects and vomit go down it.

Primary Bronchi

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It is where the trachea splits into the the primary bronchi. There are many nerve endings here that "tickle" before you cough.

Carina

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It is the medial surface of the lung.

Hilum

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The left lung has two of these since it has two lobes. The right lung has three because it has has three lobes.

Secondary Bronchi

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They are smaller tubules that extend from the bronchi. They are no longer lined with cilia. They contain no cartilage and their small diameter prevents their collapse.They are covered by smooth muscle.

Bronchioles

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It is the closing of the larynx by your epiglottis to prevent air from escaping. This can be seen in weight lifting and defecation.

Valsalva Maneuver

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Which Cranial Nerve Innervates the Vocal Cords?

Cranial Nerve X: Vagus

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It refers to the rima glottis and the true vocal cords

Glottis

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Which muscles does coughing use?

Trachealis muscle, the internal intercostals, and the abdominal muscles.

29

There are 300-400 million of this in the lungs and are the branch from the bronchioles. They diffuse oxygen into the pumonary capillaries so it can by carried by erythrocytes to the body's metabolically active tissues

Alveoli

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They are migratory cells that continually crawl within the alveoli, engulfing microorganisms or particulate material that has reached the alveoli.

Alveolar Microphages

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it is the potential space in the thoracic cavity when the lung is removed.

Pulmonary Cavity

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It is the potential space in between the viceral and parietal pleura. It acts as a partial vacuum.

Pleural Cavity

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It is pneumonia limited to one lobe of a lung.

Lobar Pneumonia

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Lymphatic drainage of the right lung drains into which lymphatic duct

the right lymphatic duct

35

Lymphatic drainage of the left lung drains into which lymphatic duct

The thoracic duct.

36

It is the opening up and dilation of the bronchioles. It is the main function of the sympathetic innervation

Bronchodilation

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It is the decreasing of the airway diameter of the bronchioles. It is the main function of the parasympathetic innervation.

Bronchoconstriction

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encompasses emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis. It is characterized by lung structural abnormalities resulting from inflammation. Airflow obstruction makes it difficult to exhale.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Also known as COPD

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It is the abnormal collection of air in the pleural cavity that disrupts normal breathing. It breaks the partial vacuum.

Pneumothorax

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It is a tangled mass of lymph vessels most often seen in young children. It is not cancerous but its growth can encroach on other organs

Cystic Hygroma

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Excess Amniotic fluid can be a sign of

Muscular Dystrophy, undeveloped brain, or a growth in the chest or neck.

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the trachea and inserting a plastic breathing tube.

Tracheostomy Piercing

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collapsed lung

atelectasis

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accumulation of serous fluid in pleural cavity

hydrothorax

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accumulation of pus in pleural cavity. occurs with pneumonia

empyema

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infection of alveoli in the lung. causes tissue swelling and accumulated leukocytes, greatly diminishing capacity for gas exhange. bronchi produce and expel sputum

pneumonia

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chronic condition with episodes of bronchoconstriction and wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and excess pulmonary mucus

asthma

48

why do women who smoke while pregnant have babies with lower birth weight?

umbilical arteries vasoconstrict, decreasing blood flow to the placenta

49

irreversible loss of pulmonary gas exchange areas due to inflammation of the terminal bronchioles and alveoli, as well as wedespread destruction of pulmonary elastic connective tissue. trapped air in nonfunctional alveoli give a barrel chest appearance. cannot exhale properly

Emphysema

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highly aggressive and frequently fatal malignancy that originates in the epithelium of the respiratory system. metastasis occurs in early stages, making surgical removal of cancer very unlikely. commonly spreads to the brain.

Lung Cancer

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3 types of lung cancer

squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and small-cell carcinoma

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most common form of lung cancer. microscopic changes to pseudostratified ciliated epithelium lining the lung to make it sturdier stratified squamous epithelium. become overtly malignant and divide uncontrollably, invade surrounding tissue, and spread to distant sites

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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less common that squamous cell type. arises in mucin producing glands in the respiratoru epithelium. DNA injury causes cell to become malignant and divide uncontrollably. histologically indistinguishable from other forms because cells display microscopic features of gland from which it arose.

Adenocarcinoma

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less common lung cancer originates in main bronchi and invades mediastinum. known for its early metastasis to other organs. arise from the small neuroendocrine cells in the larger bronchi. tumors secrete hormones, such as ACTH, producing symptoms of Cushing Syndrome

Small-Cell Carcinoma

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research indicates these babies have trouble regulating and maintaing blood pressure, breathing, and body temperature. some form of stress, along with these three factors are involved in deaths. sleeping on stomach increases risk. 60% male

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

56

Where does most amniotic fluid originate from?

as urine in the fetal kidneys