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202 Lecture Exam 2 > Respiratory System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (84):
1

What roles does the respiratory system play in the body?

1. Intake oxygen, release of CO2 2. Controlling blood pH 3. Creating vocal responses

2

What is external respiration?

The point of gas exchange between alveoli and pulmonary capillaries

3

What is internal respiration?

The gas exchange between capillaries and other tissues

4

Describe the path of oxygen through the respiratory system

  1. External nares
  2. Vestibule 
  3. Nasal meatuses and conchae
  4. Nasopharynx 
  5. Oropharynx 
  6. Laryngopharynx
  7. Trachea
  8. Carina (bifurcation)
  9. Primary bronchi
  10. Secondary bronchi
  11. Tertiary bronchi
  12. Bonchioles
    1. Terminal bronchioles

5

Describe the flow of oxygen through the respiratory zone

  1. Respiratory bronchioles
  2. Alveolar duct
  3. Alveolar sac
  4. Alveoli
  5. Alveolar capillaries 

6

What is the name of the zone prior to the respiratory zone?

Conducting zone

7

From where in the body does asthma originate?

Bronchioles

8

What is pleurisy?

A condition in which the pleural cavity becomes inflamed, causing less sliding to occur

9

If a patient is suffering from pleurisy, what sound will you hear?

A sound like strands of silk sliding across each other, called "pleural friction rub"

10

What is COPD?

A chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; long-term airflow obstruction , reduced pulmonary ventilation

11

What is asthma and what are its symptoms?

Airway inflammation, bronchioles constrict; causes wheezing, coughing, suffocation

12

What is chronic bronchitis?

Sever, persistent inflammation of lower respiratory tract, goblet cells secrete excess mucus which gathers in lungs 

13

What is emphysema and what are its symptoms?

Alveolar walls break down and alveoli converge into fewer and larger spaces, flabby lungs with grape to ping pong ball sized cavitated spaces 

14

What receptors trigger inhalation?

Chemoreceptors (talk to brain respiratory centers)

15

Where are the central chemoreceptors located and what do they do?

Location: medulla oblongata

Function: monitor O2/CO2/pH, #1 driver of inhalation, triggered by low CSF pH

16

Where are the peripheral chemoreceptors located and what in their function?

Location: aortic and carotid bodies

Function: Monitor PO2/PCO2 in blood

 

17

What is PO2?

Partial pressure of oxygen

18

What are the four brain structures that control respiration?

  1. DRG
  2. VRG
  3. PRG
  4. Cerebral cortex

19

What is the role of the DRG and where is it located?

Dorsal Respiratory Group

L: Medulla

F: modifies depth of inspiration

20

What is the location and function of the VRG?

Ventral Respiratory Group

L: Medulla

F: Drive inspiration, stimulate diaphragm and external intercostals

21

What is the location and function of the PRG?

Pontine Respiratory Group

L: Pons

F: Smooth transitions between inspiration and expiration

22

What is the role of the cerebral cortex in respiration?

Conscious override of breathing

23

What nerve innervates the diaphragm?

Phrenic nerve

24

What does Boyle's Law state and what is its equation?

When volume goes up, pressure goes down; 

PV=nRT

25

What is the basic mechanism of inspiration?

The diaphragm flattens and the intercostals pull the rib cage up and out, expanding the volume of the lungs, thus decreasing the pressure, causing air to rush in as it follows the pressure gradient from high to low

26

What is the layer of the lung's pleura that attaches to the chest wall?

Parietal pleura

 

27

What is the visceral pleura?

The layer of the pleura that attaches to the lungs

28

What is the name of the space between the parietal and visceral pleura?

Pleural cavity

29

What are the functions of the liquid in the pleural cavity?

To hold the two layers together; reduces friction as lungs expand and contract; holds a pressure gradient that maintains residual volume; keeps lungs separate

30

Where does the intrapleural (intrathoracic) pressure have to remain?

Subatmospheric; keeps you from breathing out ALL the air in your lungs 

31

What is pneumothorax?

Presence of air in pleural cavity, causes atelectasis

32

What is atelectasis?

Lung collapse

33

What is the wall of the alveolar sac composed of?

Simple squamous epithelium and Type I Alveolar cells

34

How does oxygen get from the blood into the alveolar sacs?

It crosses the respiratory membrane

35

What does Dalton's Law state?

That the total pressure of air is the sum total of each of the partial pressures of the different gasses in the air

P(atmosphere) = PO2 + PN2 + PCO2 + Pother

36

How do the muscles and pressures change in exhalation?

Diaphragm and muscles of inspiration relax; volume decreases, pressure increases, air moves from high to low out of the lungs

37

What are the 4 muscles of inspiration?

  1. External intercostals
  2. Scalenes
  3. Pectoralis minor
  4. Sternocleidomastoid

38

What two factors cause tension in the alveoli?

Elastic fibers in the alveolar walls and surface tension in the alveolar fluid

39

How do alveoli interact with constriction?

They are always moving towards constriction

40

What is the role of Type II Alveolar cells in respiration?

Secrete a surfactant to decrease the surface tension of the alveolar fluid, thus keeping the alveoli from collapsing

41

What would be the result if the alveoli lost their elasticity?

They would remain expanded = emphysema = barrel chest

42

What happens if you inhale particle from the air and they move into the alveoli?

Alveolar macrophages in the alveolar sac devour and destroy any particles

43

How do the WBC alveolar macrophages work?

They engulf foreign particles and break it down with digestive enzymes in the macrophage

44

How does asbestos cause lung damage?

Sharp asbestos fibers are not destroyed, they poke a hole in the macrophage, releasing the digestive enzymes into the alveolus, which causes scarring (asbestosis) and sometimes cancer (mesothelioma)

45

What is respiratory distress syndrome?

An immaturity of Type II alveolar cells (like in premature babies), very constricted alveoli

46

How much O2 is dissolved in the blood plasma?

1.5%

47

Where is 98.5% of O2 stored?

Hemoglobin

48

What is the name of a hemoglobin with 4 oxygen molecules?

Oxyhemoglobin

49

At what level do we want O2 to bind to the Hb?

External respiration at the lungs

50

At what level do we want oxygen to dissociate from the Hb?

At the level of the tissues (internal respiration)

51

What 3 conditions can cause the oxygen to unbind from the Hb?

  1. Decrease in pH (more acidic)
  2. 2,3-biphosphoglycerate BPG increase
  3. Temperature increase

52

What causes increased acidity in the blood in the oxygen drop-off?

Conversion of CO2 waste into carbonic acid

53

What does the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve represent?

Easier for the first oxygen to bind to Hb than for the last oxygen which needs a much greater pO2

54

How is fetal Hb different than adult Hb?

Fetal: HbF, binds oxygen more strongly, more efficient

Adult: HbA, less efficient 

55

What is the name of the diffusion of oxygen across the extracellular matrix called?

Internal respiration

56

What role does oxygen play in the cell?

It is the final electron acceptor at the end of the ETC, creates superoxide dismutase

57

What are the 4 kinds of hypoxia?

  1. Hypoxemic
  2. Ischemic
  3. Anemic
  4. Histotoxic

58

What is hypoxemic hypoxia?

Caused by low arterial pO2, inadequate pulmonary gas exchange; can happen at high elevation, drowing , aspiration, or CO poisoning

59

What causes ischemic hypoxia?

Inadequate circulation of blood, congestive heart failure

60

What causes anemic hypoxia?

Anemia, inability of blood to carry enough O2

61

What causes histotoxic hypoxia?

Metabolic poison like cyanide prevents tissues from using O2

62

What is hyperoxia?

High pO2

63

What is the term for high pCO2?

Hypercapnia

64

What is hypocapnia?

Low pCO2

65

How is carbon dioxide carried in the bloodstream?

  • 7% dissolved in blood
  • 23% bound in amino acids in Hb (carbaminohemoglobin)
  • 70% forms bicarbonate ions
  • Travels toward the lungs where it moves into alveoli and awaits low pressure in the alveoli so it can be exhaled

66

What is the role of bicarbonate in the blood?

Maintain pH

67

How does the Bohr effect help dissociate oxygen from hemoglobin?

Increases blood acidity at the tissues which allows H+ to load onto the Hb, displacing oxygen and making available to the tissues

68

What is epistaxis?

Nosebleed

69

What is aspiration?

Taking of foreign matter into the lungs

70

What is asphyxia?

The state of not being able to breath

71

What is dyspnea?

Difficult or labored respiration

72

What is apnea?

Transient cessation of respiration

73

What is sputum?

Expectorated matter from the air passages in disease of the lungs, bronchi, or URT

74

What is snot?

Mucus that has captured dust or other particles 

75

Why do people snore?

Pharynx muscles are weak or tonsils are enlarged

76

How do drowning victims die?

H2O touches larynx which closes epiglottis and triggers laryngospasm; they suffocate

77

What is smokers hack?

Cigarattes paralyze the cilia for 20 minutes, after that time they bring up a crap load of lung debris = cough

78

How does the sympathetic nervous system change respiration?

Norepinephrine binds to walls of airways, diameter increase, more air is inhaled

79

What is phlegm?

Mucus, lung debris, and macrophages

 

80

What is a pink puffer?

 Someone with emphysema 

81

What is the term for someone with chronic bronchitis?

Blue bloater

82

What muscles are used in inspiration?

diaphragm and external intercostals

83

In a forced expiration, what muscles are used?

Rectus abdominus, internal intercostals, external obliques

84

What are the 4 layers that make up the respiratory membrane?

  1. Simple squamous epithelium
  2. basement membrane of alveolus
  3. endothelium of capillary
  4. basement membrane of capillary