Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy T2 > Respiratory System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (74):
1

What is another term for the superior thoracic aperture?

Anatomically: thoracic inlet
Clinically: thoracic outlet

2

What is the superior thoracic aperture bounded by?

T1
1st rib
Manubrium and costal cartilages

3

What types of joint are the costochondral joints?

Synochondrosis (primary cartilaginous)

4

What are the features on the upper surface of the 1st pair of ribs?

Subclavian artery groove (most posterior)
Scalene anterior tubercle
Subclavian vein groove (most anterior)

5

Does the rib articulate with the vertebra on the same level and the vertebra above or below?

Vertebral of same level and vertebra above

6

What type of joint are the costovertebral joints?

Synovial plane

7

What is the name of the joint where the tubercle of the rib articulates with the transverse process of the vertebra of the same level, and what type of joint is it?

Costotransverse joint
Synovial plane

8

What is the inferior thoracic aperture bounded by?

T12
11th and 12th ribs
Costal cartilages of ribs 7-10
Xiphisternal joint

9

Which are the true ribs?

1-7 attach to sternum

10

Which are the false ribs?

8-10 indirectly attach to sternum through costal cartilage s

11

Which are the floating ribs?

11-12 only attach to vertebra

12

Which ribs form the costal margin (subcostal angle)?

Ribs 7-10

13

What are the three muscles the incercostal spaces and what is their position?

Superficial - external
Intermediate - internal
Deep - inner most

14

What is the direction of fibres in the three intercostal muscles?

Superficial - inferior anterior
Intermediate - inferior posterior
Deep - inferior posterior

15

Between which two layers of the intercostal muscles does the neurovascular bundle lie?

Innermost and internal

16

Which part of the rib is the neuromuscular bundle located?

Costal groove

17

What is the intercostal membrane?

The external and internal IC muscles don't occupy full length of IC space and become an aponeurosis (flat tendon)

18

Where on the rib does the external IC muscle turn into an aponeurosis?

Costchondral junction (rib joins costocartilage)

19

Where on the rub does the internal IC muscle turn into an aponeurosis?

To the costal angles posteriorly

20

How much of the IC space does the innermost IC muscle take up and what is the erst filled with?

Central half
Anterior - traversus thoracis
Posterior - subcostalis muscle

21

What does each neuromuscular bundle give off that is located at the top of each rib?

A small collateral branch

22

Where are the axillary lymph nodes located?

Root of upper arm

23

Where are the superficial and deep inguinal lymph nodes located?

Root of lower limb

24

Where are the pectoral lymph nodes located?

Around the pectoralis major

25

Where and the tracheobronchial lymph nodes located?

Bifircation of the trachea

26

Where and the lumbar/pelvic lymph nodes located?

Root of abdominal aorta in abdomen and pelvis

27

Where are the superficial and deep cervical lymph nodes located?

In the head and neck

28

What vein does the thoracic duct drain into?

L brachiocephalic v.

29

What vein does the right lymphatic duct drain into?

R brachiocephalic v.

30

What are the 5 groups of the axillary lymph nodes?

Pectoral (anterior)
Posterior
Apical
Central
Lateral

31

What is the axillary tail of spence?

An extension of the tissue of the breast that extends into the axilla

32

Where is the glandular part of the axillary lymph nodes located?

Ribs 2-6
Lateral border of sternum
Mid-axillary line

33

What is the main muscle of inspiration?

The diaphragm

34

What are the main muscles for inspiration?

External intercostals and the diaphragm

35

What are the 3 peripheral attachments of the diaphragm?

Lumbar vertebra and arcuate ligaments
Costal cartilage of ribs 7-12
Xiphoid process

36

What is the central attachment of the diaphragm?

Central tendon

37

Where does the right crura originate and its function?

L1-3
Some fibres surround the oesophageal opening and help prevent reflux of gastric components back into the oesophagus

38

Where does the left crura originate?

L1-2

39

What nerve innervate the diaphragm?

Phrenic nerve (C3,4,5) - supplies motor and sensory nerves

40

What nerves are the peripheral parts of the diaphragm also innervated by?

Sensory fibres of the IC nerves T7-12

41

What hiatus of the diaphragm occurs at T8?

Caval opening through the central tendon to transmit the IVC and R phrenic nerve

42

What hiatus of the diaphragm occurs at T10?

Oesophageal hiatus through the muscular sling of R crus to transmit the oesophagus and vagus nerve

43

What hiatus of the diaphragm occurs at T12?

Aortic hiatus - between L and R crus to transmit the aorta, azygous vein, hemiazygous vein and thoracic duct

44

What parts of the bronchial tree are considered to be the conducting portion of the bronchial tree?

No gas exchange:
Trachea
Main bronchus
Lobar bronchus
Segmental bronchus
Conducting bronchiole
Terminal bronchiole

45

What structures are in the upper respiratory tract?

Nasal cavity
Phraynx
Larynx

46

What structures are in the lower respiratory tract?

Trachea
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Lungs

47

What structures of the bronchial tree are considered to the the respiratory portion the bronchial tree?

Respiratory bronchiole
Alveolar duct
Alveolar sac
Alveolus

48

What is the function of the larynx?

Set of cartilages, membrane and ligament which produce sound from expired air and protects the inlet to the rest. system

49

At what level is the larynx located in the neck?

C3-6

50

From superior to inferior, what are the structures that form the larynx and their levels?

Epiglottis
Hyoid bone (C2/3)
Thyroid membrane (C4)
Thyroid cartilage (with larynx prominens at the front - C5)
Cricoid cartilage (C6)

(Continues inferiorly as the trachea at C6)

51

What nerve innervates the larynx?

The vagus nerve - motor and sensory

52

What does the right lung contain that the left doesn't?

3 lobes - superior, middle, inferior
2 fissures - oblique AND horizontal

53

What does the left lung contain that the right doesn't?

2 lobes - superior, inferior
1 fissure - oblique
Cardiac notch
Cardiac impression
Lingula
Aortic impression

54

What is the hilum of the lung?

Area on the medial surface through which structures enter and leave the lung

55

What structures travel through the hilum?

Main bronchus
Pulmonary artery
Pulmonary veins (superior and inferior)
Bronchopulmonary lymph nodes

56

What is the position of the main vessels in the hilum?

Posterior - main bronchus
Superior - pulmonary artery
Anterior - superior pulmonary vein
Inferior - inferior pulmonary veins

57

What is present within the bronchia wall to enable its identification as a bronchus?

Incomplete C shape hyaline cartilage (plates)

58

What are the two pulmonary bronchi referred to as in the right lung?

Eparterial (superior)
Hyparterial (inferior)

59

What are the 3 lung surfaces?

Costal - adjacent to sternum, costal cart. and ribs
Mediastinal
Diaphragmatic

60

What are the 3 lung borders?

Anterior - costal and mediastinal
Inferior - diaphragmatic
Posterior - costal and mediastinal posteriorly

61

Why is the right lung shorter and broader than the left lung?

As right dome of diaphragm is higher as the heart if on the L side

62

Describe the pleura

Double serous membrane:
Visceral
Parietal

63

Name the different parietal pleura according to location

Mediastinal
Diaphragmatic
Costal
Apical (cervical or cupola)

64

What nerves supply the parietal pleural?

Somatic nerves: IC and phrenic
Pain sensitive

65

What nerves supplying the visceral pleura?

Vagus and sympathetic nerves (T2-5)
Pain insensitive

66

What is a pleural reflection?

Where the parietal lining on chest wall surface changes direction to line another surface

67

What is the costodiaphragmatic (costphrenic) reflection?

From ribs to superior surface of diaphragm

68

What is the costomediastinal reflection?

From ribs to mediastinum

69

What are pleural recesses?

At the reflections, it is where he pleura are the most widely separated

70

Why are recesses clinically useful?

Needle aspiration of pleural effusion in the 9h IC space to pirate costodiaphragmatic recess

71

Where can a needle be inserted to allow it to travel to heart without penetrating lungs or pleura?

Cardiac notch - ribs 4-6 anteriorly where the lung and pleura deviate away from the sternal angle

72

What is the surface anatomy of lungs and pleura mid clavicular line?

Inferior lung; rib 6
Inferior pleura; rib 8

73

What is the surface anatomy of lungs and pleura mid axillary line?

Inferior lung; rib 8
Inferior pleura; rib 10

74

What is the surface anatomy of lungs and pleura mid scapula line?

Inferior lung; rib 10
Inferior pleura; rib 12