Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (74):
What is another term for the superior thoracic aperture?
Anatomically: thoracic inlet
Clinically: thoracic outlet
What is the superior thoracic aperture bounded by?
Manubrium and costal cartilages
What types of joint are the costochondral joints?
Synochondrosis (primary cartilaginous)
What are the features on the upper surface of the 1st pair of ribs?
Subclavian artery groove (most posterior)
Scalene anterior tubercle
Subclavian vein groove (most anterior)
Does the rib articulate with the vertebra on the same level and the vertebra above or below?
Vertebral of same level and vertebra above
What type of joint are the costovertebral joints?
What is the name of the joint where the tubercle of the rib articulates with the transverse process of the vertebra of the same level, and what type of joint is it?
What is the inferior thoracic aperture bounded by?
11th and 12th ribs
Costal cartilages of ribs 7-10
Which are the true ribs?
1-7 attach to sternum
Which are the false ribs?
8-10 indirectly attach to sternum through costal cartilage s
Which are the floating ribs?
11-12 only attach to vertebra
Which ribs form the costal margin (subcostal angle)?
What are the three muscles the incercostal spaces and what is their position?
Superficial - external
Intermediate - internal
Deep - inner most
What is the direction of fibres in the three intercostal muscles?
Superficial - inferior anterior
Intermediate - inferior posterior
Deep - inferior posterior
Between which two layers of the intercostal muscles does the neurovascular bundle lie?
Innermost and internal
Which part of the rib is the neuromuscular bundle located?
What is the intercostal membrane?
The external and internal IC muscles don't occupy full length of IC space and become an aponeurosis (flat tendon)
Where on the rib does the external IC muscle turn into an aponeurosis?
Costchondral junction (rib joins costocartilage)
Where on the rub does the internal IC muscle turn into an aponeurosis?
To the costal angles posteriorly
How much of the IC space does the innermost IC muscle take up and what is the erst filled with?
Anterior - traversus thoracis
Posterior - subcostalis muscle
What does each neuromuscular bundle give off that is located at the top of each rib?
A small collateral branch
Where are the axillary lymph nodes located?
Root of upper arm
Where are the superficial and deep inguinal lymph nodes located?
Root of lower limb
Where are the pectoral lymph nodes located?
Around the pectoralis major
Where and the tracheobronchial lymph nodes located?
Bifircation of the trachea
Where and the lumbar/pelvic lymph nodes located?
Root of abdominal aorta in abdomen and pelvis
Where are the superficial and deep cervical lymph nodes located?
In the head and neck
What vein does the thoracic duct drain into?
L brachiocephalic v.
What vein does the right lymphatic duct drain into?
R brachiocephalic v.
What are the 5 groups of the axillary lymph nodes?
What is the axillary tail of spence?
An extension of the tissue of the breast that extends into the axilla
Where is the glandular part of the axillary lymph nodes located?
Lateral border of sternum
What is the main muscle of inspiration?
What are the main muscles for inspiration?
External intercostals and the diaphragm
What are the 3 peripheral attachments of the diaphragm?
Lumbar vertebra and arcuate ligaments
Costal cartilage of ribs 7-12
What is the central attachment of the diaphragm?
Where does the right crura originate and its function?
Some fibres surround the oesophageal opening and help prevent reflux of gastric components back into the oesophagus
Where does the left crura originate?
What nerve innervate the diaphragm?
Phrenic nerve (C3,4,5) - supplies motor and sensory nerves
What nerves are the peripheral parts of the diaphragm also innervated by?
Sensory fibres of the IC nerves T7-12
What hiatus of the diaphragm occurs at T8?
Caval opening through the central tendon to transmit the IVC and R phrenic nerve
What hiatus of the diaphragm occurs at T10?
Oesophageal hiatus through the muscular sling of R crus to transmit the oesophagus and vagus nerve
What hiatus of the diaphragm occurs at T12?
Aortic hiatus - between L and R crus to transmit the aorta, azygous vein, hemiazygous vein and thoracic duct
What parts of the bronchial tree are considered to be the conducting portion of the bronchial tree?
No gas exchange:
What structures are in the upper respiratory tract?
What structures are in the lower respiratory tract?
What structures of the bronchial tree are considered to the the respiratory portion the bronchial tree?
What is the function of the larynx?
Set of cartilages, membrane and ligament which produce sound from expired air and protects the inlet to the rest. system
At what level is the larynx located in the neck?
From superior to inferior, what are the structures that form the larynx and their levels?
Hyoid bone (C2/3)
Thyroid membrane (C4)
Thyroid cartilage (with larynx prominens at the front - C5)
Cricoid cartilage (C6)
(Continues inferiorly as the trachea at C6)
What nerve innervates the larynx?
The vagus nerve - motor and sensory
What does the right lung contain that the left doesn't?
3 lobes - superior, middle, inferior
2 fissures - oblique AND horizontal
What does the left lung contain that the right doesn't?
2 lobes - superior, inferior
1 fissure - oblique
What is the hilum of the lung?
Area on the medial surface through which structures enter and leave the lung
What structures travel through the hilum?
Pulmonary veins (superior and inferior)
Bronchopulmonary lymph nodes
What is the position of the main vessels in the hilum?
Posterior - main bronchus
Superior - pulmonary artery
Anterior - superior pulmonary vein
Inferior - inferior pulmonary veins
What is present within the bronchia wall to enable its identification as a bronchus?
Incomplete C shape hyaline cartilage (plates)
What are the two pulmonary bronchi referred to as in the right lung?
What are the 3 lung surfaces?
Costal - adjacent to sternum, costal cart. and ribs
What are the 3 lung borders?
Anterior - costal and mediastinal
Inferior - diaphragmatic
Posterior - costal and mediastinal posteriorly
Why is the right lung shorter and broader than the left lung?
As right dome of diaphragm is higher as the heart if on the L side
Describe the pleura
Double serous membrane:
Name the different parietal pleura according to location
Apical (cervical or cupola)
What nerves supply the parietal pleural?
Somatic nerves: IC and phrenic
What nerves supplying the visceral pleura?
Vagus and sympathetic nerves (T2-5)
What is a pleural reflection?
Where the parietal lining on chest wall surface changes direction to line another surface
What is the costodiaphragmatic (costphrenic) reflection?
From ribs to superior surface of diaphragm
What is the costomediastinal reflection?
From ribs to mediastinum
What are pleural recesses?
At the reflections, it is where he pleura are the most widely separated
Why are recesses clinically useful?
Needle aspiration of pleural effusion in the 9h IC space to pirate costodiaphragmatic recess
Where can a needle be inserted to allow it to travel to heart without penetrating lungs or pleura?
Cardiac notch - ribs 4-6 anteriorly where the lung and pleura deviate away from the sternal angle
What is the surface anatomy of lungs and pleura mid clavicular line?
Inferior lung; rib 6
Inferior pleura; rib 8
What is the surface anatomy of lungs and pleura mid axillary line?
Inferior lung; rib 8
Inferior pleura; rib 10