Flashcards in Respiratory System A&P Deck (49):
Structurally, the respiratory system is made up of two parts called the ...
... upper respiratory system and the lower respiratory system.
The upper respiratory system includes what structures?
The nose, nasal cavity, and the pharynx.
The lower respiratory system includes what structures?
The larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Functionally, the respiratory system is divided into two parts. What are they?
The conducting zone and the respiratory zone.
What are the structures that form the respiratory zone?
The respiratory bronchioles, ...
... alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and the alveoli.
What are the structures that from the conducting zone?
The nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and the ...
The anterior portion of the cartilage of the nose is called what?
The septal nasal cartilage.
What is the name of the cartilage that forms the walls of the nostrils and is located beneath the septal and lateral nasal cartilages?
The two openings of the nose is called what?
The three main functions of the interior structures of the external nose are warming, moistening, and filtering air, detecting olfactory stimuli, and...
Modifying speech vibrations.
The prolonging, amplifying, and modifying of vocal sounds is called what?
What are the four skull bones that contain paranasal sinuses?
The frontal, ...
Sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillae.
A nasal cavity that is open or unobstructed is said to be what?
What is the anterior portion of the nasal cavity called?
The nasal septum divides the nasal cavity into left and right sides. It is made up of hyaline cartilage and what bone?
What are the superior, middle, and inferior shelf-like projections just beyond the nasal vestibule?
The nasal conchae form the superior, middle, and inferior nasal meatuses, which cause inhaled air to swirl around, warming it. What do they do for exhaled air?
Trap water droplets to prevent dehydration
What are the three divisions of the pharynx?
The nasopharynx, ...
oropharynx, and laryngopharynx.
Two auditory (pharyngotympanic) tubes from the ears open into the pharynx. They are also known as what?
The pharyngeal tonsil is also known as what?
What are the nine pieces of cartilage that make up the larynx?
The thyroid cartilage is one.
Epiglottis, cricoid cartilage, and a pair of arytenoid, cuneiform, and corniculate cartilages
The false vocal cords are also known as what?
The space between the ventricular folds is known as the what?
The space between the vocal folds (true vocal cords) is called what?
What is a main function of the ventricular folds?
Closing off the passage to the trachea, as in while holding one's breath
What type of epithelial cells make up the vocal folds (true vocal cords)?
Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Closing all but the most posterior portion of the rima glottidis enables what?
At what level of vertebrae does the trachea divide into the right and left bronchi?
What vertebral levels does the larynx span?
List the order of bronchial branching from the trachea to the terminal bronchioles.
What is the name of the internal ridge at the point where the trachea splits into the left and right bronchi?
The carina is one of the most sensitive areas of the entire larynx and trachea for triggering what?
The coughing reflex
Secondary bronchi are also known as what?
Tertiary bronchi are also known as what?
What triangularly shaped cartilage is located at the posterior and superior border of the cricoid cartilage?
In addition to conducting, warming, moistening, and cleaning air, the internal nose structure also does what?
Lightens the skull and resonates the voice
True or false:
The pharynx contains lymphatic tissue?
What type of epithelium is found in the walls of the trachea?
What are the layers of the trachea from superficial to deep?
Adventitia, smooth muscle, submucosa, mucosa
What type of cells line the inner layer of the conducting organs?
Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
What is a comparable surface area of the alveoli of the lungs?
A racquetball court
How many respirators per minute is normal for a healthy adult?
I don't know yet
What is the term given for the amount of air that one can breathe in or out above the tidal volume?
The pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume, and is known as what?
Each gas in a mixture exerts its own pressure as if no other gases were present, and total pressure is the sum of all the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture. This principal is known as what?
The quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is directly proportional to its partial pressure. This is known as what?
What is the percentage of available oxygen that enters cells in internal respiration?
I don't know yet
The pneumotaxic area inhibits over inhalation. The apneustic area stimulates long deep breaths. Which area overrides the other?
Pneumotaxic area will override the apneustic area