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Flashcards in Respiratory System A&P Deck (49):
0

Structurally, the respiratory system is made up of two parts called the ...

... upper respiratory system and the lower respiratory system.

1

The upper respiratory system includes what structures?

The nose, nasal cavity, and the pharynx.

2

The lower respiratory system includes what structures?

The larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.

3

Functionally, the respiratory system is divided into two parts. What are they?

The conducting zone and the respiratory zone.

4

What are the structures that form the respiratory zone?
The respiratory bronchioles, ...

... alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and the alveoli.

5

What are the structures that from the conducting zone?
The nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and the ...

Terminal bronchioles.

6

The anterior portion of the cartilage of the nose is called what?

The septal nasal cartilage.

7

What is the name of the cartilage that forms the walls of the nostrils and is located beneath the septal and lateral nasal cartilages?

Alar cartilages.

8

The two openings of the nose is called what?

External nares

9

The three main functions of the interior structures of the external nose are warming, moistening, and filtering air, detecting olfactory stimuli, and...

Modifying speech vibrations.

10

The prolonging, amplifying, and modifying of vocal sounds is called what?

Resonance

11

What are the four skull bones that contain paranasal sinuses?
The frontal, ...

Sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillae.

12

A nasal cavity that is open or unobstructed is said to be what?

Patent

13

What is the anterior portion of the nasal cavity called?

Nasal vestibule

14

The nasal septum divides the nasal cavity into left and right sides. It is made up of hyaline cartilage and what bone?

Vomer

15

What are the superior, middle, and inferior shelf-like projections just beyond the nasal vestibule?

Nasal conchae

16

The nasal conchae form the superior, middle, and inferior nasal meatuses, which cause inhaled air to swirl around, warming it. What do they do for exhaled air?

Trap water droplets to prevent dehydration

17

What are the three divisions of the pharynx?
The nasopharynx, ...

oropharynx, and laryngopharynx.

18

Two auditory (pharyngotympanic) tubes from the ears open into the pharynx. They are also known as what?

Eustachian tubes

19

The pharyngeal tonsil is also known as what?

Adenoid

20

What are the nine pieces of cartilage that make up the larynx?
The thyroid cartilage is one.

Epiglottis, cricoid cartilage, and a pair of arytenoid, cuneiform, and corniculate cartilages

21

The false vocal cords are also known as what?

Ventricular folds

22

The space between the ventricular folds is known as the what?

Rima vestibuli

23

The space between the vocal folds (true vocal cords) is called what?

Rima glottidis

24

What is a main function of the ventricular folds?

Closing off the passage to the trachea, as in while holding one's breath

25

What type of epithelial cells make up the vocal folds (true vocal cords)?

Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

26

Closing all but the most posterior portion of the rima glottidis enables what?

Whispering

27

At what level of vertebrae does the trachea divide into the right and left bronchi?

T5

28

What vertebral levels does the larynx span?

C4-C6

29

List the order of bronchial branching from the trachea to the terminal bronchioles.

Primary bronchi
Secondary bronchi
Tertiary bronchi
Bronchioles
Terminal bronchioles

30

What is the name of the internal ridge at the point where the trachea splits into the left and right bronchi?

Carina

31

The carina is one of the most sensitive areas of the entire larynx and trachea for triggering what?

The coughing reflex

32

Secondary bronchi are also known as what?

Lobar bronchi

33

Tertiary bronchi are also known as what?

Segmental bronchi

34

What triangularly shaped cartilage is located at the posterior and superior border of the cricoid cartilage?

Arytenoid Cartilages

35

In addition to conducting, warming, moistening, and cleaning air, the internal nose structure also does what?

Lightens the skull and resonates the voice

36

True or false:
The pharynx contains lymphatic tissue?

True

37

What type of epithelium is found in the walls of the trachea?

Keratinized

38

What are the layers of the trachea from superficial to deep?

Adventitia, smooth muscle, submucosa, mucosa

39

What type of cells line the inner layer of the conducting organs?

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

40

What is a comparable surface area of the alveoli of the lungs?

A racquetball court

41

How many respirators per minute is normal for a healthy adult?

I don't know yet

42

What is the term given for the amount of air that one can breathe in or out above the tidal volume?

Reserve volumes

43

The pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume, and is known as what?

Boyle's Law

44

Each gas in a mixture exerts its own pressure as if no other gases were present, and total pressure is the sum of all the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture. This principal is known as what?

Dalton's Law

45

The quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is directly proportional to its partial pressure. This is known as what?

Henry's Law

46

What is the percentage of available oxygen that enters cells in internal respiration?

I don't know yet

47

The pneumotaxic area inhibits over inhalation. The apneustic area stimulates long deep breaths. Which area overrides the other?

Pneumotaxic area will override the apneustic area

48

What is the Hering Breuer reflex?

I don't know yet