Respiratory System - Histo Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Final > Respiratory System - Histo > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory System - Histo Deck (62):
1

What are the 5 main functions of the Respiratory system?

1. Air conduction
2 air filtration
3. Gas exchange
4. Speech = air through larynx
5. Olfaction = air passing over olfactory mucosa in the nasal cavities carries stimuli for sense of smell.

2

What are the 5 main functions of the Respiratory system?

1. Air conduction
2 air filtraion
3. Gas exchange
4. Speech = air through larynx
5. Olfaction = air passing over olfactory mucosa in the nasal cavities carries stimuli for sense of smell.

3

What are the two functional divisions of the respiratory system?

1. Conducting Division
2. Respiratory Divison

4

What structures are part of the Conducting division?

Nose, pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, and Bronchioles (Including terminal Bronchioles)

5

What structures are part of the Respiratory division?

Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and alveoli.

6

What is the Respiratory division?

Where gas exchange takes place.

7

What is the Conducting Divison?

Air passageways that lead to gas exchange areas of respiration.

8

What is the Conducting Division?

Air passageways that lead to gas exchange areas of respiration.

9

________ (coming from right side of heart) enter the lung with the bronchi and branch as they follow the Bronchiole tree.

Pulmonary blood vessels .

10

How is air conditioned as it passes through the Conducting division?

- Warming
- Moistening
- Removal of Particulate materials
- Mucous and serous secretions moisten air, trap particles.
*Cilia sweep contaminated mucous to pharynx to be swallowed.

11

Typically, what kind of cells make up respiratory epithelium?

Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar epithelium
HAS:
- Ciliated columnar cells
- Goblet cells (mucous)
- basal Cells = stem cells

12

What 3 tissues comprise the majority of the conducting systems walls?

1. Mucosa ( respiratory epithelium)
2. Submucosa = connective tissue slightly dense than the connective tissue of the lamina propria; contains blood vessels that may
3. Adventitia = composed of connective tissue that binds component to adjacent structures.

13

Where is the pharynx what what is its function?

- connects nasal an oral cavities to larynx and esophagus.
- passage for food and air.

14

The Pharynx is divided regionally into the ________ poster to the nasal cavity and the _______ posterior to oral cavity and the ______ (begins at the level of the superior border of the upright epiglottis and opens into the esophagus and larynx.)

Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Laryngopharynx

15

_____ is an air passageway only.

Nasopharynx

16

______ & ______ are air and food passageways.

Oropharynx and Laryngopharynx

17

______ & _____ consist of Nonkeritainized stratified squamous epithelium.

Oropharynx & Laryngopharynx

18

_____ consists of Pseudostratifed columnar epithelium.

Nasopharynx

19

When swallowing the ______ & ____ move superiorly to close of the nasopharynx.

uvula and soft palate

20

____ is continuous with both the esophagus and the Larynx: extends from an upright epiglottis to the Larynx.

Laryngopharynx

21

What is the Larynx?

Passage for air between the Laryngopharynx and trachea.
*Serves as organ for speech.

22

What is the Larynx made of?

Mostly respiratory epithelium, but the luminal surface of the vocal folds is covered with nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium along with a large portion of the epiglottis.

23

______ contains irregular shaped plates of cartilage that are important for animating open airway .

The Larynx

24

_____ & _____ are made from Hyaline Cartilage.

Thyroid & Cricoid cartilages

25

_____, _____, & ______ are made from elastic Cartilage.

Epiglottis, Cuneiform and Corniculate Cartilages.

26

What structures are made of a mix of elastic and Hyaline cartilage?

Arytenoid Cartilages

27

What does the epiglottis do?

Closes of entrance to larynx when swallowing.

28

What do Intrinsic muscles do?

Pull on arytenoid cartilage tightening or loosening the vocal cords to change pitch.

29

Describe the structure of the trachea.

Short, flexible, air tube, 10 cm; Conduit for air. Lies anterior to Esophagus.
- Contains "C" shaped rings of hyaline cartilage (16-20 rings). opening of C is posterior and is crossed by fibroelastic tissue and smooth muscle (tracheal muscle.)

30

At end, trachea divides into the ________.

2 primary Bronchi

31

What are the layers of the Trachea?

Mucosa
- Respiratory epithelium on THICK basement membrane
- Lamina propr. with lots of elastic fibers.

Submucosa
- Relatively loose connective tissue with submucosal glands composed of mucus secreting acini with serous demilunes.

Cartilaginous Layer with trachiealis muscle.

Adventitia

32

What is the pathway f air through the Conducting division?

Larynx, trachea, Primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles , terminal bronchioles

33

What happens as conducting division branches?

- Branches get smaller
- amount of cartilage decreases
- Amount of sooth muscle increases
- height of lining epithelial cells decreases

34

Right lung has ____ lobes.

3 lobes *and 3 lobar (secondary) bronchi branches

35

Left lung has ___ lobes.

2 lobes *and 2 lobar (secondary) bronchi branches

36

_________ main bronchus is much shorter , wider and vertical that the other. (Clinical significance).

Right
* objects More likely to get aspirated into right than left bronchi.

37

Each segmental bronchi (tertiary) entes a _____ segment of the lung.

Bronchopulmonary

38

Each segmental bronchi (tertiary) entes a _____ segment of the lung.

Bronchopulmonary segment

39

_____ lung has 8-10 bronchopulmonary segments.

Left (8-10) tertiary bronchi

40

____ lung has 10 bronchopulmonary Segments.

Right (10 tertiary Bronchi)

41

T or F, Each bronchopulmonary segment has its own blood supply and connective tissue septa.

True, this make it convent for surgical resection of a segment.

42

Describe the structure of the Bronchioles.

- 1mm or less in diameter
- No cartilage in walls
- no glands in submucosa.
- epithelium changes from pseudostratfied columnar epithelium to ciliated simple columnar epithelium to ciliated simple cuboidal epithelium.
- Goblet cells present only in larger bronchioles.

43

What is the smallest bronchiole (terminal bronchiole) lined with?

Ciliated simple cuboidal epithelium

44

____ are the first place that allow gas exchange.

Respiratory Bronchioles (after terminal bronchioles)

45

After the Terminal bronchioles, where does air go?

Respiratory bronchioles --> Alveolar ducts --> Alveolar sacs --> alveoli

46

________ lined by cuboidal epithelium that rests on small bundle of eosinophil material.

Respiratory Bronchiole

47

_____ has ciliated and Nonciliated Clara cells.

Respiratory Bronchioles

48

____ Contains only non ciliated clara cells.

Terminal Bronchioles

49

_____ elongated airways that have almost no walls, only alveoli as peripheral boundary.

Alveolar ducts

50

_____ are elongated airways that have almost no walls, only alveoli as peripheral boundary.

Alveolar ducts

51

__________Are spaces surrounded by clusters of alveoli.

Alveolar sac

52

Where do alveolar sacs typically occur?

typically occurs at the termination of the alveolar duct,

53

____ are 150-250 million per lung and create internal surface area of 75m squared.

Alveoli.

54

The wall of the alveoli between two alveoli is known as ______.

Alveolar Septum, septal wall or inter alveolar septum

55

The Alveolar septum contains 5 different types of cells, what are they?

1. Type 1 alveolar cells
2. Type 2 Alveolar cells
3. Alveolar Macorphages
4. Endothelial Cells
5. Fibroblasts.

56

_____ produce elastic fibers.

Fibroblasts

57

____ compose wall of capillary.

Endothelial cells

58

________ can be found in the connective tissue of septum and Phagocytize inhaled particulate matter and RBCs.

Alveolar macrophages

59

_____ cover 5% of alveolar surface. Discharge phospholipid called surfactant which keeps the alveoli from collapsing with inhalation.

Type 2 Alveolar cells

60

_____ are alveolar surface epithelial cells; squamous cells lines 95% of alveolar surface.

Type 1 alveolar cells.

61

The air in an alveolus and the blood in the capillary is separated by a ______.

Respiratory membrane called the blood-air barrier.

62

What makes up the Blood-air barrier?

1. Surface lining and cytoplasm of the alveolar cells.
2. Fused basal laminae of the Alveolar cells and capillary endothelial cells.
3. Cytoplasm of the endothelial cells