Flashcards in Respiratory System Organization and Function Deck (26):
What is the respiratory system responsible for?
Transport of O2 from air into the blood and removal of CO2 from the blood and into the air
What are the 7 main functions of the respiratory system?
1. Provides O2 to blood
2. Removes CO2 from blood
3. Regulates [H+] (blood pH)
5. Microbial Defense
6. Influences arterial concentration of chemical messengers
7. Traps and dissolves small blood clots
Where are the lungs located?
Suspended in the thoracic cavity, above the diaphragm
What is the purpose of the diaphragm?
Skeletal muscle separating thoracic cavity from abdominal cavity.
-Main breathing muscle of the lungs
What is the intrapleural space?
The space between the lungs and chest wall
Why do the lungs have different lobes?
The left lung only has 2 lobes because the heart has a slight tilt to the left, pressing up against the left lung to form the cardiac notch
What are the 2 membranes surrounding the lungs?
Visceral Membrane: Stuck to the surface of the lung
Parietal Membrane: Stuck to the chest wall and the top of the diaphragm
-both membranes connect before the primary bronchi
What and where is the intercostal muscle?
2 sets of muscle between the ribs to allow the ribcage to expand and compress with breathing
Why is the intrapleural space filled with a little bit of fluid?
To allow the lungs to slide against the chest wall, helps with breathing easily
What are the rings around the bronchi?
Cartilage to prevent the trachea and bronchi from collapsing
What makes respiratory bronchioles different from bronchioles?
Respiratory have less cartilage and made of more smooth muscle
What are the 2 divisions in the lungs?
What is the alveoli duct?
Connects the aveolar sac to the respiratory bronchioles
What is the function of the conducting zone?
To conduct air to and from the alveoli
To remove particles/microorganisms: cilia on endothelial cells sweep all together in a motion in which to push the particle/organism towards the mouth
-Bacteria are trapped in the mucos and cilia sweep it up towards the airway
What is the function of the respiratory zone?
Respiratory bronchols start to see the presence of alveoli on the bronchioles
This is where gas is exchanged
The regulation of [H+] happens as the alveoli
Where do the pulmonary capillaries originate from?
-capillaries wrap around each alveoli
Where does gas exchange take place in the alveoli?
At the blood gas barrier
-separates the blood in pulmonary cpaillaries from air in the alveoli
What are the 3 type of cells that make up the wall of the alveoli capillary?
Type 1: Most of the cell is made up of these thin cells. Used for gas exchange
Type 2: Cube shaped are used for normal function and produce surfactant
Macrophage: Go around the cell picking up particles/microorganisms that have gotten past
What is better for gas exchange, deep or shallow breaths?
Deep breaths because shallow will only fill the tubes of the conducting zone and air will not get the alveoli for gas exchange
What is pulmonary ventilation?
The amount of air entering the entire lungs (both conducting and respiratory zones) in one minute
How is pulmonary ventilation calculated?
Tidal volume (volume of air in 1 breath) x Respiratory rate (number of breaths per min)
What is the alveolar ventilation?
The volume of air entering only the respiratory zone each minute
What is the anatomical dead space?
The conducting zone which is a big area that is not involved in gas exchange
What is the equation for alveolar ventilation?
Pulmonary ventilation - Anatomical dead space ventilation
How do you measure dead space volume?
For a normal person in the upright position is = to their approx. body weight in pounds