Respiratory - Unit 3 - Problems of the upper respiratory tract Flashcards Preview

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1

What does the nose do to the air we breathe?

Warms air! So if it's got a problem...

2

What do we assess for with the nose?

Asymmetry, lesions, inflammation, look inside nares

3

Swollen and red nose =

Swollen and pink nose =

Rudolph ---

Just kidding. Swollen and RED = Cold

Swollen and PINK = allergies.

4

With the pharynx (back of throat and such) what are we looking for?

Color, symmetry, exudate, ulceration, enlargement, etc.

5

What are we looking for with the trachea?

Is it MIDLINE!!

6

What might we use nasal packing for?

Should we know how to remove it?

If someone has a nosebleed!

We should know how to remove it in case there is an emergency.

7

What are balloon catheters used for?

Nose bleeds!

8

What are mustache dressings used for?

Rhinoplasty, neuro OR - it's tape under the nose.

9

What are some symptoms of a cold?

Nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, sneezing, malaise, fever/chills.

10

What is rhinitis?

viral or bacterial cause - inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose - caused by a foreign body in the nose, structural deformities, neoplasms, chronic use of nasal decongestants

11

What is rhinitis a side effect of?

Cocaine, antihypertensives, PO contraceptives

12

What is acute pharyngitis?

Sore throat - usually caused by a virus, typically Group A Strep

13

What are some symptoms of pharyngitis?

Sore throat, swollen cervical lymph nodes, hoarseness, cough, rhinitis

14

What's a complication of pharyngitis if left untreated and it's caused by strep A?

Rheumatic fever!

15

How do we treat pharyngitis?

Penicillin (if bacterial!), fluids, bedrest while febrile, comfort (warm saline gargle, ice collar, analgesics), antitussives, mouth care

16

What is chronic pharyngitis? Who is it common in?

Pharyngitis that is lasting a long time. Common in adults who work or live in dusty surroundings (singers, public speakers), those who suffer from chronic cough, habitually use tobacco/alcohol.

17

What is acute sinusitis?

Inflammation of mucous membranes in sinuses

18

How do we treat acute sinusitis?

Control infection (broad spectrum antibiotics), shrink nasal mucosa (head -- shower), relieve pain, promote drainage (inhale steam, increase fluids, apply local heat)

19

What is chronic sinusitis?

Chronic nasal obstruction - discharge and edema of the nasal passages

20

What are some symptoms of chronic sinusitis?

Cough (constant nasal dripping causes this), chronic headache, fatigue

21

Is the treatment for chronic sinusitis the same or different as that of acute sinusitis?

THE SAME! :)

22

Might someone with chronic sinusitis need surgery?

Yes, they might need a functional endoscopic sinus surgery - corrects deformities, deviated septums, polyps, drains sinuses, etc.

23

If someone has sinus/nose surgery, what might we need to tell them to do?

Facial compresses, humidification!, no coughing/sneezing/vomiting, and check BP twice a day

24

What are some complications of sinusitis?

Orbital cellulitis, subperiosteal abcess, meningitis, brain abscess (fever, severe headache, nucchal rigidity)

25

Displaced nose fracture = HORRIBLE. T/F?

False - they'll be fine. It'll go back to normal.

26

Broken nose = not that bad. T/F?

FALSE = it needs fixed!

27

If a broken nose starts leaking cerebrospinal fluid, what might that mean?

Possible skull fracture.

28

If someone has a broken nose, what are some interventions for them?

Cold compresses, semi-fowler's position, avoid aspirin/blood thinners, etc.

29

What is epistaxis?

Nose bleed!

30

How do we treat epistaxis?

Direct pressure, silver nitrate, electrocautery, gel foam, packing - 48 hours up to 6 days -- it's a cath that's inserted into the nose! Packing is for a posterior nose bleed because it's harder to reach.