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Flashcards in restorative 1 Deck (50):
1

what is primary cuticle?

-remnants of tooth development

2

what is materia alba?

-residue of food essentially 'floating' in the mouth

3

how is the acquired salivary pellicle protective in three ways?

1- glycoproteins and calcium phosphate are adsorbed onto the tooth making it more resistant to tooth wear
2-resticts diffusion of acid from sugar breakdown
3-contains antibacterial factors

4

what are the antibacterial factors in the pellicle?

1-antibodies (IgA, IgG, IgM)
2-complement(complex community of proteins)
3-lysozome(enzyme that attacks the cell wall of any pathogen)

5

Give some examples of extrinsic staining

-yellow stain
-tobacco stain
-greenstain
-black line stain
-drugs&dentifrices

6

is plaque mineralised or not mineralised?

plaque is unmineralized. Calculus is mineralised

7

what are the most cariogenic sugars?

-sucrose and glucose are the most, then fructose and lactose

8

what are some signs of healthy gums?

-pink
-firm
-stippling
-knife edged ID papilla
-no BOP

9

can gingivitis be reversed?

yes gingivitis can be reversed with improvement of oral hygiene

10

where is calculus commonly found?

next to salivary ducts. Whartons and stensons ducts

11

what percent of calculus is inorganic salts?

70-80%

12

what are 4 principle crystalline forms of calculus?

-hydroxyapatite
-magnesium whitlochlorite
-octacalcium phosphate
-brushite

13

brushite is commonly found in what type of calculus?

-supra calculus and new calculus

14

what are the 3 mineralisation theories?

1-carbon dioxide theory
2-formation of ammonia theory
3-nucleation theory

15

what is the carbon dioxide theory?

freshly secreted saliva has a higher conc. of carbon dioxide than the oral cavity, resulting in carbon dioxide escaping from the saliva causing a rise in pH

16

what is the formation of ammonia theory?

rapid calculus formers have increased urea concentration in saliva. Ammonia is the breakdown product of urea, the ammonia then causes an increase in pH levels

17

what is the nucleation theory?

crystalisation. This theory is not as well known

18

name two anti-calculus agents

pyrophosphates and diphosphonate

19

what is a periodontal pocket?

a pathologically deppened gingival crevice characterised by the migration of the junctional epithelium on to the root surface

20

what is bursts theory?

pattern of destruction varies over time and that bursts of activity are random. A burst of activity can account for more than 3mm of attachment loss in a few weeks

21

what does a 2 mean on millers mobility index?

2- mobility of crown more than 1mm in horizontal direction

22

what is meant by trifurcation?

3 roots

23

does WHO probe give a measurement?

NO. WHO probe gives a score not a measurement

24

what is the treatment for a code 4 BPE?

-full plaque, bleeding and 6 point charts
-RSD

25

how many ppm is recommended in childrens toothpaste?

500ppm

26

how many ppm is recommended in adults toothpaste?

1450ppm

27

what is in toothpaste?

-abrasive
-humectant
-binding agent
-detergent
-preservative
-colouring
-flavouring
-therapuetic
-anti-plaque agents
-buffering agent

28

what does the humectant do in toothpaste?

-prevents water loss

29

give an example of a detergent in toothpaste

sodium lauryl sulphate

30

what do we usually recommend you do when brushing?

-spit dont rinse
-pea sized amount of toothpaste

31

what are some advantages of chlorhexidine?

-kills bacteria by damaging the cell wall
-has a greater and more prolonged effect than other mouthwashes
-ability to adhere to tooth surface for long periods of time
-non-toxic

32

what are some disadvantages of chlorhexidine?

-unpleasant taste
-alters taste sensation
-stains teeth
-encourages calculus formation
-may cause parotid swelling or mucosal erosion

prolonged use should not be encouraged

33

give an example of phenolic mouthwash

-listerine

34

what type of mouthwash is peroxyl?

-oxygenating mouthwash

35

what are two mouth washes containing natural products?

-sanguinarine and propolis

36

what ppm of flouride is in duraphat flouride varnish?

26,000 ppm

37

why would chlorhexidine varnishes be applied to rooth surfaces?

-to reduce sensitivity

38

what are two methods of delivery of flouride?

-systemic
-topical

39

how many mg of flouride drops/tablets should be given to the following ages:
1. 6 months - 3 years
2. 3-6yrs
3. 6+ years

1. 0.25mg
2.0.5mg
3. mg

40

where do you place flouride tablets to get best effect and why?

-sulcus
-for slow undisturbed dissolution

41

what is a problem with water flouridation? with regards to ethics.

-violates the principle of informed consent
-"process by which a fully informed patient can participate in choices about their health"

42

what do you get someone to do if the have reached the toxicity does of flouride?

-large glass of milk
-hospitalisation

43

what are the lethal doses of flouride for adults?

-5-10gms

44

what is the lethal does of flouride for children?

-more than 5. if so then hospitalisation

45

how often should you change your toothbrush?

-every 3 months

46

what are the 5 A's? (smoking)

-ask
-advise
-assess
-assisst
-arrange

47

what are the 5 R's (smoking)

-relevance
-risk
-reward
-roadblock
-repetition

48

what is a brief intervention?

-opportunistic way of approaching smoking cessation

49

what are some examples of nicotine replacement therapy?

-patches
-gums
-lozenges
-nasal spray
-E cigarettes

50

what are some examples of non-nicotine replacement therapy?

-champix
-dumy cigarrettes
-complimentary therapies
-hypnosis
-diet
-exercise