Flashcards in restorative 1 Deck (50):
what is primary cuticle?
-remnants of tooth development
what is materia alba?
-residue of food essentially 'floating' in the mouth
how is the acquired salivary pellicle protective in three ways?
1- glycoproteins and calcium phosphate are adsorbed onto the tooth making it more resistant to tooth wear
2-resticts diffusion of acid from sugar breakdown
3-contains antibacterial factors
what are the antibacterial factors in the pellicle?
1-antibodies (IgA, IgG, IgM)
2-complement(complex community of proteins)
3-lysozome(enzyme that attacks the cell wall of any pathogen)
Give some examples of extrinsic staining
-black line stain
is plaque mineralised or not mineralised?
plaque is unmineralized. Calculus is mineralised
what are the most cariogenic sugars?
-sucrose and glucose are the most, then fructose and lactose
what are some signs of healthy gums?
-knife edged ID papilla
can gingivitis be reversed?
yes gingivitis can be reversed with improvement of oral hygiene
where is calculus commonly found?
next to salivary ducts. Whartons and stensons ducts
what percent of calculus is inorganic salts?
what are 4 principle crystalline forms of calculus?
brushite is commonly found in what type of calculus?
-supra calculus and new calculus
what are the 3 mineralisation theories?
1-carbon dioxide theory
2-formation of ammonia theory
what is the carbon dioxide theory?
freshly secreted saliva has a higher conc. of carbon dioxide than the oral cavity, resulting in carbon dioxide escaping from the saliva causing a rise in pH
what is the formation of ammonia theory?
rapid calculus formers have increased urea concentration in saliva. Ammonia is the breakdown product of urea, the ammonia then causes an increase in pH levels
what is the nucleation theory?
crystalisation. This theory is not as well known
name two anti-calculus agents
pyrophosphates and diphosphonate
what is a periodontal pocket?
a pathologically deppened gingival crevice characterised by the migration of the junctional epithelium on to the root surface
what is bursts theory?
pattern of destruction varies over time and that bursts of activity are random. A burst of activity can account for more than 3mm of attachment loss in a few weeks
what does a 2 mean on millers mobility index?
2- mobility of crown more than 1mm in horizontal direction
what is meant by trifurcation?
does WHO probe give a measurement?
NO. WHO probe gives a score not a measurement
what is the treatment for a code 4 BPE?
-full plaque, bleeding and 6 point charts
how many ppm is recommended in childrens toothpaste?
how many ppm is recommended in adults toothpaste?
what is in toothpaste?
what does the humectant do in toothpaste?
-prevents water loss
give an example of a detergent in toothpaste
sodium lauryl sulphate
what do we usually recommend you do when brushing?
-spit dont rinse
-pea sized amount of toothpaste
what are some advantages of chlorhexidine?
-kills bacteria by damaging the cell wall
-has a greater and more prolonged effect than other mouthwashes
-ability to adhere to tooth surface for long periods of time
what are some disadvantages of chlorhexidine?
-alters taste sensation
-encourages calculus formation
-may cause parotid swelling or mucosal erosion
prolonged use should not be encouraged
give an example of phenolic mouthwash
what type of mouthwash is peroxyl?
what are two mouth washes containing natural products?
-sanguinarine and propolis
what ppm of flouride is in duraphat flouride varnish?
why would chlorhexidine varnishes be applied to rooth surfaces?
-to reduce sensitivity
what are two methods of delivery of flouride?
how many mg of flouride drops/tablets should be given to the following ages:
1. 6 months - 3 years
3. 6+ years
where do you place flouride tablets to get best effect and why?
-for slow undisturbed dissolution
what is a problem with water flouridation? with regards to ethics.
-violates the principle of informed consent
-"process by which a fully informed patient can participate in choices about their health"
what do you get someone to do if the have reached the toxicity does of flouride?
-large glass of milk
what are the lethal doses of flouride for adults?
what is the lethal does of flouride for children?
-more than 5. if so then hospitalisation
how often should you change your toothbrush?
-every 3 months
what are the 5 A's? (smoking)
what are the 5 R's (smoking)
what is a brief intervention?
-opportunistic way of approaching smoking cessation
what are some examples of nicotine replacement therapy?