Flashcards in Restorative Art 2 Test 2 Deck (114):
The comparative size of the length of the nose to the width of the nose as indicated by its bony skeleton.
Length of nose using bony skeleton combined with the width
3 racial classifications for the nose
one that is shorter in length. Is more broad in width and has MINIMUM PROJECTION. Usually has implications of Africa.
one that is moderate in length and width. Medium broad and also medium low bridge. Usually has implications of Asia.
one that is fairly long in length and narrow in width. Considered to be high bridged. Usually has implications of Europe/Western Europe
3 Basic Forms....Types or Styles of Nose Profile Forms
Greek/Greecian Form. Most common profile
Pug. (AKA- Snub, Infantine, Retrousse) Typically able to see into nostrils more easily
Roman/Aquiline Form. “Hooked Nose” Curved as the beek of an eagle.
anatomy of the nose
nasal spine of the maxilla
major cartilage of the nose
1. septum (one)
2. superior lateral cartilage (two)
3. inferior lateral cartilage (two)
vertical cartilage of the nose, divides nasal cavity into two chambers. gives almost all the projection
cartilage that meets with nasal bones
superior lateral cartilage
long anterior ridge of nose. Extends from inferior margin of forehead to greatest projection near base of the nose (at tip)
parts of the nose
5. columna nasi
6. anterior nares
7. sides of nose
8. protruding lobe of nose
the dorsum is composed of....
concave dip directly inferior to forehead...just below the glabella
spherical area forming inferior portion of dorsum. joins wings of nose and also the columna nasi. includes tip of nose.
lobe is also known as...
the portion of lobes that join wings of nose...
most inferior part of the nose
raised support that spans to areas. arched portion of the nose supported by the nasal bones
Termination point of maximum forward process (projection)
external nostril openings...located posteriorly to the base of the nose
lateral walls of nose
side of nose
base of nose is composed of...
1. underside of protruding lobe
2. inferior margins of wings of nose
3. columna nasi
the mouth tends to be...
boundaries of the mouth...
from base of nose...
to top of chin....
bound laterally by nasal labial folds
when closing the mouth there should be a gap between the teeth about the thickness of a ______
the mouth is the center of....
the postmortem adjustment of the ______ and ______ greatly affect the general appearance of the face.
projection of the jaw or jaws beyond the upper part of the face.
types of prognathism
the base of the nasal cavity protrudes abnormally. Not only does it affect the base of the nasal cavity, it also affects the upper lip area. Looks like maxilla has protrusion as well as upper lip.
the sockets of the teeth protrude. Typically, it causes the same degree of protrusion in both lips. (Aunt Belle)
the teeth themselves are inserted at an oblique angle. “Buck teeth” It will give the appearance of a receding chin. (may cause more difficult in closing lips)
protrusion of inferior jaw...includes the chin. Goes well beyond the medium of the lip. Sometimes referred to as a “bulldog jaw” (Craig)
the superior jaw protrudes...protrusion of the body of the maxilla. Projection is Anterior & Lateral
parts of the mouth
1. Superior Integumentary Lip
2. Inferior Integumentary Lip
3. Mucous Membranes
4. superior mucous membrane (upper lip)
5. inferior mucous membrane (lower lip)
6. weather line
7. medial lobe
8. line of closure
skin portion of the upper lip. From attached margin of upper mucous membrame (the red lip area) to base of the nose.
Superior Integumentary Lip
visible red surface of the lips (upper red lip & lower red lip) lower red lip usually lies posteriorly to the upper red lip. The width of the lower lip is less than the top lip, tucks beneath the upper lip at the corners.
skin portion of the lower lip. From attached margin of lower mucous membrane and extends down to labial mentus sulcus.
Inferior Integumentary Lip
The two red lips (even on the same person) are not identical in ________. In many cases the upper lip is less ______ than the other...even may be changes in color along the _______ of the lip.
tiny prominence on the mid-line of the superior mucous membranes
The corners of the mouth are verically aligned with the ______________________.
center of the eye
sometimes _________ of the upper lip is the same as the _______ from the upper red lip to the ______________.
typically the lower red lip is _______ than the upper red lip
line of color change...the aread at the wet and dry portion of the lip. the exposed area may tend to be lighter in color than the area that stays moist
where the two lips meet and form closure
line of closure
in the line of closure...it gives the appearance of a hunters bow.
hunting bow pattern
Some markings you may have to recreate on the mouth:
Vertical Lines of the mucous membrane
Angulus Oris Sulcus
Angulus Oris Eminence
Labial Sulci (furrow of age)a
a state of being twisted or pushed out of natural shape or position. nose may be twisted from its normal alignment by cancer of the cheek, by superficial pressure or by fractures.
cancer in one cheek may pull the nose to the opposite side due to natural tension of muscles
distortion by cancer
treatment of distortion by cancer
1. may be corrected w/ sutures that cross diseased area & secured in healthy tissue
2. temporary sutures can be used if cancer is to be removed after embalming...then permanent sutures used
this may occur if decedent was in a prone position for some time before embalming or may be the result of pressure from a body bag or other facial covering
distortion by superficial pressure
treatment of distortion by superficial pressure
1. mortuary putty, non-absorbent cotton, or other packing materials inserted into nares.
2. for mild distortion, light massage or pressure against side of nose during emblaming
treatment of distortion by fracture
1. if skin intact, fractured nasal bones may be externally manipulated back into position.
2. nasal cavity can then be packed w/ mortuary putty, non absorbent cotton, or other packing materials
may be result of a feeding tube, endotrachial tube, or other medical device that was in the nares for extended time
erosion of nasal tissue
treatment of erosion of nasal tissue
1. tissue must be clean, firm, & dry
2. necrotic tissue may be excised
3. wax may be used for this type of restoration
most common form of distortion in funeral service?
distortion by superficial pressure
the eye socket...it is about 1 1/2 inches deep
margins of the orbital cavity
1. frontal bone
2. zygomatic bone
superior rim of the eye socket is known as..
the only rim that has a name...it projects further than any other rim, providing protection to the eyeball
superior rim (supraorbital margin)
the eyebrow is influenced by the...
_____________________ helps to form the lateral rim.
formed by the extensions of both the zygomatic bone and the frontal bone
forms a concave dip of the orbital cavity.
lies on the side of the head
located posterior to the medial rim due to bilateral curvature of the skull
lateral margin of orbital cavity
created chiefly by the maxilla and zygomatic bones.
medial end is superior to the lateral end.
appears to be recessive at times
simulates a SIGMOID "S" curve.
inferior margin of orbital cavity
created mainly by the frontal process of the maxilla.
serves as a guide for hypodermic tissue building behind the eyeball
medial margin of orbital cavity
the eye is approximately ____ in diameter...in women it is a little _______
when is the eye typically completely developed?
external __________ of the eyeball is increased by the cornea
Transparent structure which constitutes the anterior layer of the eye.
the cornea has a diameter of ......
the eyeball rests in the anterior _______ of the socket.
within fat and muscle within the orbit
differences in appearance are due to variations in the _______ and not eyeball _______
Parts of the eyelids....
1. superior palpebra
2. inferior palpebra
shape of the eyelids?
longer in its vertical dimension.
The greatest height is medially, off-center
its inferior curvature is lowest at the center of the inferior margin of the iris.
two lateral ends are inferior & posterior to the medial end.
Occurs in 1/3 of the eye socket
lateral end is inferior and posterior to the medial.
line of closure of the eye
lies near root of the nose
naso orbital fossa could also be called...
NASAL orbital fossa
forms the outer terminus of the line of closure of the eye
small elevation or eminence near line of closure of the eye
fringe of hair edging the eyelashes.
They are irregular in length...abundant & spacing. Arranged in clusters which form inverted triangles.
Tend to have fewer bottom than upper. None at either end of line of closure. Not unusual to find small intervals where there is no hair at all.
Height or thickness diminishes as it moves laterally.
Inclines inferiorly as it goes laterally. Hair growth is obliquely upward & outward.
Lateral end usually points toward ear passage.
the 3 parts of the supercilium
thin area of the supercilium...most later...hair growth usually most sparce.
thicker portion of the supercilium...most medial ....most dense hair growth...anterior portion of the head.
middle portion of the supercilium...less dense hair growth and more oblique
median ends of the eyebrows...slightly superior to head of eyebrow
superciliary arch (2)
study this card...
PARTS OF THE CLOSED EYE
1. superior palpebrae (upper eyelid)
2. inferior palpebrae (lower eyelid)
3. line of eye closure
4. nasal orbital fossa
5. superior orbital area
6. inner canthus
9. superior palpebral sulcus
10. inferior palpebral sulcus
11. optic facial sulci (crows feet)
12. oblique palpebral sulcus
13. supraorbital margin
STUDY FOLDED PAGES IN BOOK
Composition of wax...
Starch (controls consistency and tackiness)
this wax has the characteristics of skin...light refraction in common with human skin
what makes restorative waxes adaptable
1. malleable when warmed
2. adheres to cold surfaces
3. models easily & retains position
4. accepts most cosmetics
properties of wax
inability to adhere
types of restorative waxes
(integumentary, surface restorer)
Used for small surface areas where a thin layer is required (lips, razor burns, sutures)
(feature repair, derma-surgery, or restorative wax)
Firmer for reconstruction of facial features.
Smoothes to a very fine layer.
(also known as wound filler)- Feature repair; surfacing large cavities
(soft wax for mucous membranes) can be used for other purposes (Most adhesive type of wax)
pro of firm wax...
considerations of firm wax...
extensive prep work required
firm and dry surface required
basket weave (cross stitch suture) (intra-support lines)
materials to aid in a firm dry cavity..
hypodermic injection (high index fluid or phenol)
chemical cauterizing agents
type of lip wax that is....
tinted (warm color range)
narrow color range
translucent lip wax
type of lip wax that has...
great color range
not as adherent (due to starch content)
blend well with cream based cosmetics
opaque lip wax
wax may be altered with cosmetics by...
1. placing cosmetics under wax
2. mixing cosmetics with wax
3. placing cosmetics over wax
ways to soften wax...
add massage cream or cream based cosmetics
add petroleum jelly
ways to harden wax...
expose to cold (refrigerator)
mix with cornstarch or talcum powder