Restorative Art 2 Test 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Restorative Art 2 Test 2 Deck (114):
1

The comparative size of the length of the nose to the width of the nose as indicated by its bony skeleton.

Length of nose using bony skeleton combined with the width

nasal index

2

3 racial classifications for the nose

1. Leptorrhine
2. Mesorrhine
3. Platyrrhine

3

one that is shorter in length. Is more broad in width and has MINIMUM PROJECTION. Usually has implications of Africa.

Platyrrhine

4

one that is moderate in length and width. Medium broad and also medium low bridge. Usually has implications of Asia.

Messorhine

5

one that is fairly long in length and narrow in width. Considered to be high bridged. Usually has implications of Europe/Western Europe

Leptorrhine

6

3 Basic Forms....Types or Styles of Nose Profile Forms

1. straight
2. convex
3. concave

7

Greek/Greecian Form. Most common profile

straight

8

Pug. (AKA- Snub, Infantine, Retrousse) Typically able to see into nostrils more easily

concave

9

Roman/Aquiline Form. “Hooked Nose” Curved as the beek of an eagle.

convex

10

anatomy of the nose

nasal bones
nasal cavity
nasal spine of the maxilla
major cartilages

11

major cartilage of the nose

1. septum (one)
2. superior lateral cartilage (two)
3. inferior lateral cartilage (two)

12

vertical cartilage of the nose, divides nasal cavity into two chambers. gives almost all the projection

septum

13

cartilage that meets with nasal bones

superior lateral cartilage

14

long anterior ridge of nose. Extends from inferior margin of forehead to greatest projection near base of the nose (at tip)

dorsum

15

parts of the nose

1. dorsum
2. root
3. bridge
4. wings
5. columna nasi
6. anterior nares
7. sides of nose
8. protruding lobe of nose

16

the dorsum is composed of....

1. root
2. bridge
3. lobe
4. tip

17

concave dip directly inferior to forehead...just below the glabella

root

18

spherical area forming inferior portion of dorsum. joins wings of nose and also the columna nasi. includes tip of nose.

lobe

19

lobe is also known as...

protruding lobe

20

the portion of lobes that join wings of nose...

lateral lobes

21

most inferior part of the nose

columna nasi

22

raised support that spans to areas. arched portion of the nose supported by the nasal bones

bridge

23

Termination point of maximum forward process (projection)

tip

24

external nostril openings...located posteriorly to the base of the nose

nares

25

lateral walls of nose

side of nose

26

base of nose is composed of...

1. underside of protruding lobe
2. inferior margins of wings of nose
3. columna nasi
4. nares

27

the mouth tends to be...

asymmetrical

28

boundaries of the mouth...

from base of nose...
to top of chin....
bound laterally by nasal labial folds

29

when closing the mouth there should be a gap between the teeth about the thickness of a ______

dime

30

the mouth is the center of....

expression

31

the postmortem adjustment of the ______ and ______ greatly affect the general appearance of the face.

jaws
lips

32

projection of the jaw or jaws beyond the upper part of the face.

Prognathism

33

types of prognathism

1. maxillary
2. mandibular
3. dental
4. alveolar
5. infra-nasal


34

the base of the nasal cavity protrudes abnormally. Not only does it affect the base of the nasal cavity, it also affects the upper lip area. Looks like maxilla has protrusion as well as upper lip.

Infra-Nasal prognathism

35

the sockets of the teeth protrude. Typically, it causes the same degree of protrusion in both lips. (Aunt Belle)

Alveolar prognathism

36

the teeth themselves are inserted at an oblique angle. “Buck teeth” It will give the appearance of a receding chin. (may cause more difficult in closing lips)

dental prognathism

37

protrusion of inferior jaw...includes the chin. Goes well beyond the medium of the lip. Sometimes referred to as a “bulldog jaw” (Craig)

mandibular prognathism

38

the superior jaw protrudes...protrusion of the body of the maxilla. Projection is Anterior & Lateral

maxillary prognathism

39

parts of the mouth

1. Superior Integumentary Lip
2. Inferior Integumentary Lip
3. Mucous Membranes
4. superior mucous membrane (upper lip)
5. inferior mucous membrane (lower lip)
6. weather line
7. medial lobe
8. line of closure

40

skin portion of the upper lip. From attached margin of upper mucous membrame (the red lip area) to base of the nose.

Superior Integumentary Lip

41

visible red surface of the lips (upper red lip & lower red lip) lower red lip usually lies posteriorly to the upper red lip. The width of the lower lip is less than the top lip, tucks beneath the upper lip at the corners.

Mucous Membranes

42

skin portion of the lower lip. From attached margin of lower mucous membrane and extends down to labial mentus sulcus.

Inferior Integumentary Lip

43

The two red lips (even on the same person) are not identical in ________. In many cases the upper lip is less ______ than the other...even may be changes in color along the _______ of the lip.

color
red
width

44

tiny prominence on the mid-line of the superior mucous membranes

Medial Lobe

45

The corners of the mouth are verically aligned with the ______________________.

center of the eye

46

sometimes _________ of the upper lip is the same as the _______ from the upper red lip to the ______________.

thickness
distance
columna nasi

47

typically the lower red lip is _______ than the upper red lip

thicker

48

line of color change...the aread at the wet and dry portion of the lip. the exposed area may tend to be lighter in color than the area that stays moist

weather line

49

where the two lips meet and form closure

line of closure

50

in the line of closure...it gives the appearance of a hunters bow.

hunting bow pattern

51

Some markings you may have to recreate on the mouth:

Vertical Lines of the mucous membrane
Philtrum
Angulus Oris
Angulus Oris Sulcus
Angulus Oris Eminence
Labial Sulci (furrow of age)a

52

a state of being twisted or pushed out of natural shape or position. nose may be twisted from its normal alignment by cancer of the cheek, by superficial pressure or by fractures.

nasal distortion

53

cancer in one cheek may pull the nose to the opposite side due to natural tension of muscles

distortion by cancer

54

treatment of distortion by cancer

1. may be corrected w/ sutures that cross diseased area & secured in healthy tissue

2. temporary sutures can be used if cancer is to be removed after embalming...then permanent sutures used

55

this may occur if decedent was in a prone position for some time before embalming or may be the result of pressure from a body bag or other facial covering

distortion by superficial pressure

56

treatment of distortion by superficial pressure

1. mortuary putty, non-absorbent cotton, or other packing materials inserted into nares.

2. for mild distortion, light massage or pressure against side of nose during emblaming

57

treatment of distortion by fracture

1. if skin intact, fractured nasal bones may be externally manipulated back into position.

2. nasal cavity can then be packed w/ mortuary putty, non absorbent cotton, or other packing materials

58

may be result of a feeding tube, endotrachial tube, or other medical device that was in the nares for extended time

erosion of nasal tissue

59

treatment of erosion of nasal tissue

1. tissue must be clean, firm, & dry
2. necrotic tissue may be excised
3. wax may be used for this type of restoration

60

most common form of distortion in funeral service?

distortion by superficial pressure

61

the eye socket...it is about 1 1/2 inches deep

orbital cavity

62

margins of the orbital cavity

1. frontal bone
2. zygomatic bone
3. maxilla

63

orbital margins

1. superior
2. lateral
3. inferior
4. medial

64

superior rim of the eye socket is known as..

supraorbital margin

65

the only rim that has a name...it projects further than any other rim, providing protection to the eyeball

superior rim (supraorbital margin)

66

the eyebrow is influenced by the...

superior margin

67

_____________________ helps to form the lateral rim.

zygomaticofrontal process

68

formed by the extensions of both the zygomatic bone and the frontal bone

zygomaticofrontal process

69

forms a concave dip of the orbital cavity.
lies on the side of the head
located posterior to the medial rim due to bilateral curvature of the skull

lateral margin of orbital cavity

70

created chiefly by the maxilla and zygomatic bones.
medial end is superior to the lateral end.
appears to be recessive at times
simulates a SIGMOID "S" curve.

inferior margin of orbital cavity

71

created mainly by the frontal process of the maxilla.
serves as a guide for hypodermic tissue building behind the eyeball

medial margin of orbital cavity

72

the eye is approximately ____ in diameter...in women it is a little _______

1"
less

73

when is the eye typically completely developed?

at puberty

74

external __________ of the eyeball is increased by the cornea

convexity

75

Transparent structure which constitutes the anterior layer of the eye.

cornea

76

the cornea has a diameter of ......

1/2"

77

the eyeball rests in the anterior _______ of the socket.
within fat and muscle within the orbit

2/3

78

differences in appearance are due to variations in the _______ and not eyeball _______

bony structure
size

79

Parts of the eyelids....

1. superior palpebra
2. inferior palpebra

80

palpebral means...

eyelids

81

shape of the eyelids?

almond shaped

82

longer in its vertical dimension.
The greatest height is medially, off-center

Superior Palpebra

83

its inferior curvature is lowest at the center of the inferior margin of the iris.

two lateral ends are inferior & posterior to the medial end.

Occurs in 1/3 of the eye socket

lateral end is inferior and posterior to the medial.

line of closure of the eye

84

lies near root of the nose

naso-orbital fossa

85

naso orbital fossa could also be called...

NASAL orbital fossa

86

forms the outer terminus of the line of closure of the eye

lateral canthus

87

small elevation or eminence near line of closure of the eye

confirm definition

inner canthus

88

fringe of hair edging the eyelashes.

They are irregular in length...abundant & spacing. Arranged in clusters which form inverted triangles.
Tend to have fewer bottom than upper. None at either end of line of closure. Not unusual to find small intervals where there is no hair at all.

cilia

89

Height or thickness diminishes as it moves laterally.
Inclines inferiorly as it goes laterally. Hair growth is obliquely upward & outward.
Lateral end usually points toward ear passage.

Supercilium

90

the 3 parts of the supercilium

1. tail
2. body
3. head

91

thin area of the supercilium...most later...hair growth usually most sparce.

tail

92

thicker portion of the supercilium...most medial ....most dense hair growth...anterior portion of the head.

head

93

middle portion of the supercilium...less dense hair growth and more oblique

body

94

median ends of the eyebrows...slightly superior to head of eyebrow

superciliary arch (2)

95

study this card...
PARTS OF THE CLOSED EYE

1. superior palpebrae (upper eyelid)
2. inferior palpebrae (lower eyelid)
3. line of eye closure
4. nasal orbital fossa
5. superior orbital area
6. inner canthus
7. cilia
8. supercilium
9. superior palpebral sulcus
10. inferior palpebral sulcus
11. optic facial sulci (crows feet)
12. oblique palpebral sulcus
13. supraorbital margin

96

STUDY FOLDED PAGES IN BOOK

....

97

Composition of wax...

Waxes
Oils (petroleum)
Pigments
Scents
Starch (controls consistency and tackiness)

98

this wax has the characteristics of skin...light refraction in common with human skin

restorative waxes

99

what makes restorative waxes adaptable

1. malleable when warmed
2. adheres to cold surfaces
3. models easily & retains position
4. accepts most cosmetics

100

properties of wax

inability to adhere
clinging tendency

101

types of restorative waxes

1. soft
2. medium
3. firm
4. lip

102

(integumentary, surface restorer)
Used for small surface areas where a thin layer is required (lips, razor burns, sutures)

soft wax

103

(feature repair, derma-surgery, or restorative wax)
Firmer for reconstruction of facial features.
Smoothes to a very fine layer.

medium wax

104

(also known as wound filler)- Feature repair; surfacing large cavities

firm wax

105

(soft wax for mucous membranes) can be used for other purposes (Most adhesive type of wax)

lip wax

106

pro of firm wax...

rigid

107

considerations of firm wax...

extensive prep work required
firm and dry surface required
basket weave (cross stitch suture) (intra-support lines)

108

materials to aid in a firm dry cavity..

cavity packs
hypodermic injection (high index fluid or phenol)
chemical cauterizing agents
electric spatula
rubber cement
nail polish

109

type of lip wax that is....
tinted (warm color range)
adhesive property
narrow color range

translucent lip wax

110

type of lip wax that has...
great color range
not as adherent (due to starch content)
blend well with cream based cosmetics

opaque lip wax

111

wax may be altered with cosmetics by...

1. placing cosmetics under wax
2. mixing cosmetics with wax
3. placing cosmetics over wax

112

ways to soften wax...

heat
add massage cream or cream based cosmetics
add petroleum jelly
blow dryer
warm water

113

ways to harden wax...

expose to cold (refrigerator)
mix with cornstarch or talcum powder

114

ways to recreate pores of the skin...

1. damp paper towel
2. damp gauze or terry cloth
3. stippling brush