Flashcards in Restorative Art II Test 1 Deck (136):
the relationship of the size of one feature as compared with another feature… or with the width or length of the face
the vertical measurement of a part of a feature
The value of the study of facial proportions
1. Notes similarities in size of facial features
2. Notes differences in size relationships
EVERYTHING is guided by....
the most common geometric head shape
imaginary parallel lines...one at top of head and one at base of chin
length of the head
top of head is also called
extends across the corners of eyes
midline of the length of head
dimension from tip of nose to greatest protrusion of back of head is equal to___________________
size of the length of head
average adult's height is.....
7.5 - 8 head lengths
distance from the root of the nose to the base of the wing of the nose is equal to _______________
length of the first two joints of the index finger
vertical distance from the base of the nose to the line of closure of the lips is equal to ______________
distance from the tip of the index finger to the first joint
measured from normal hairline to the base of the chin...including the ears.
what is crucial to restorative art?
the width of the face is equal to______________
two-thirds (2/3) of the length of the face
the face is divided into ______ measurements to determine the entire length of the face.
the lower 1/3 of the face can be divided into ____ equal lengths.
the lower 1/3 of the face is divided into what parts?
1. Base of nose
2. Line of lip closure
3. Top of chin
4. Base of chin
Divide the face in 3 equal parts by drawing lines through the.....
3. base of nose
4. base of chin
divide the face in 2 equal halves by drawing a line at the...
1. Vertex of the cranium
2. Line of eye closure
3. Base of the chin
the widest part of the head is measured by the __________
distance between the two parietal eminences
the face is ____ noses long
the length of the nose is equal to___________
length of the ear
the width of the nose at the wings is equal to __________
the width of an eye
the face is _____ eyes wide from __________ to _________________
the distance between the eyes is equal to_______________
the width of ONE eye
the mouth is _____ eyes wide
the superior border of the ear is on the same ____________________________
horizontal plane as the eyebrows
the inferior border of the ear is on the same ______________________________
horizontal plane as the base of the nose
the face is ___ ears long
4 facial features that are used as units of measurements for the face.
Sanders states..."when using the ________ as a unit of measure, hold the ____________ parallel to the __________.
the distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the finger is equal to ______
1. length of the ear
2. length of the nose
3. normal hairline to root of nose
4. base of nose to bottom of chin
the basic dimensional unit or width measurement is.......
to reveal asymmetry it is a good idea to invert the photo when doing a RA to get a new perspective
concept of inversion
Surface that lies at right angle to source of illumination.
Surface that DOES NOT lie at right angle to source of illumination.
types of lighting...
lighting from above (no special placement of lights)
lighting pointing directly (special placement of lights...purposeful)
typically from a flash...very dark then a flash of light
in facial profiles ____________ or ______________ will be very important
most common profile form
least common profile form
standard basic profile form
forehead tends to be level with chin & upper lip
forehead tends to recede as well as the chin...looks like a rounded ball.
forehead tends to protrude as well as the chin...looks like punched in center of face.
the ___________ is not included in our discussion on facial forms
a person can also have a ____________ facial profile
three basic facial profile forms
what 3 things form the VERTICAL PROFILE?
2. upper lip area
the forehead will be described in its direction from the _________ going up.
the chin is described in its relationship to the _____________
there are ____ profile combinations
profile combinations are in what order as far as terms?
6 types of profile combinations
Forehead recedes and chin protrudes
Forehead protrudes and chin recedes
Forehead is straight and chin recedes
Forehead is straight and chin protrudes
Forehead recedes and chin is straight
Forehead protrudes and chin is straight
the form of the head does not stay consistent throughout _______
head shape is influenced by its _________
to get a geometric head form, we take width measurements and in those measurements we look at the width of the ___________________ and put them together along with the ___________________
length of the head
types of geometric head shapes...
1. Oval shape
2. Round shape
3. Square shape
4. Triangular shape
5. Inverted triangular shape
6. Diamond shape
7. Oblong shape
most common head shape (cranium is slightly wider than jaws)
also called infantine/infantile (cranium with maximum amount of curvature)
forehead is wide & angles of mandible (jaw “strong jaw”) are wide & low (has very little curvature)
least common (Wider at angles of mandible than at the forehead)
forehead is wider than mandible...narrows considerably. (Base is superior to the apex)
Inverted triangular shape
cheek bones wider than forehead and mandible. Narrows on top and bottom
head is long and narrow throughout (almost rectangular)
least common head shape
bilateral forms of the head & facial features
1. bilateral-two sides
2. bilateral differences
3. bilateral silhouette
dissimilarities that exists between one side and another
bilateral viewpoint of both sides (from top or bottom)
features that exhibit asymmetry
1. Eyelids & Eyebrows
2. Ears (exhibit the greatest differences in position, form, & size)
4. Nose & Mouth (pay attention to line of closure on mouth)
Surfaces exhibiting a similarity of bilateral curvature:
These can all be seen in bilateral silhouette
3. Superior Integumentary Lip
4. Chin (oval, round, angular, & square)
lack of symmetry, balance, or proportion
outline or surface form
a hollow or shallow concave area in a surface
the silhouettes of the face from the side view
a photograph or painting in which the subject has been posted and lighted flatteringly by a professional photographer or artist.
side view of the human head
act of throwing forward; a part extending beyond the level of its surroundings
return of light waves from surfaces; the bending or folding back of a part upon itself
the process of taking in, as in a colored object which absorbs certain rays of light and reflects other rays giving the objects its recognizable color.
ex: an apple is called red if the red rays are reflected and the other rays in the light are absorbed.
the latin term for ear is...
no two ears are________
identical...not even on same individual
the _________ & ____________ of an ear can be different
the ears change _________ in a lifetime than any other facial feature.
the ear is formed like a ____________
the ear is made mostly of ____________....except the _______
best structure to use when seeking location for modeled ear
External Auditory Meatus
As the Zygomatic Arch comes through, it divides
the length of the ear in half
Anatomical Structures of the Temporal Bone used for Locating the Modeled Ear
1. External Auditory Meatus (ear passage)
2. Zygomatic Arch
3. Mandibular Fossa
4. Mastoid Process
the zygomatic arch ABUTS the top of the......
external auditory meatus
the hinge portion (indention) that is located directly in front of the External auditory meatus?
located behind and below the external auditory meatus
internal ear bones
the internal ear bones have ______________ on surface form
parts of the ear are classified as...
Hollows or Cavities
Elevations or Ridges
5 hollows or cavities of the ear...
1. Ear Passage
2. Concha (shell)
3. Triangular Fossa
5. Intertragic Notch
orifice that leads into the hearing organ. Not visible from the frontal view or from the direct profile view.
the concave shell of the ear. Considered to be behind or above the ear passage. Walled in completely on both sides. Sometimes the vertical dimension can be cut in half.
the deepest depression of the ear
it is the depression that is between the crura of the antihelix
second deepest depression of the ear
shallowest depression of the ear
the fossa that is between the inner and outer rim of the ear. may be tough to find sometimes
notch or opening between Tragus & Antitragus of the ear
the intertragic notch is also called the ....
5 elevations or ridges of the ear
1. Helix & Crus
2. Antihelix & Crura
outer rim of the ear...looks like a backwards question mark.
beginning of the Helix...outer rim...where the Helix may originate *****confirm this******
crus of the helix
the crus of the helix can also originate (2)
Anterior area of the Concha
Posterior area of the Concha
anterior portion of the helix will merge with the....
superior portion of the helix separates from the _________ at the ______ of the head
the amount of separation of the superior portion from the head is about the width of a _________
inner rim of the ear
the antihelix will bifurcates as it moves _________
the antihelix bifurcates into the _______ of the antihelix
elevation that protects the ear...
the tragus projects from __________ & ________ margin of the cheek
eminence obliquely opposite the tragus..
the antitragus is located on the ________ border of the lobe of the ear
inferior fatty 1/3 of the ear...no cartilagenous lower part of the ear.
the anterior border of the lobe attaches to the_______
use the anterior margin as guide for the __________-
inclination of the ear
draw an imaginary line from attachment at the ________ down to the _______