COOH group is added to substrate
- ∆H formula
H = E + PV
- E = internal energy of system
- PV = work
- ∆H = q
Positive delta H
Kinetically controlled = ______ (reversible/irreversible) Thermodynamically controlled = _______
Kinetic = irreversible Thermodynamic = reversible
Which energy level do transition metals lose e- from first?
V = kcat*[E]*[S] / (Km + [S])
How many H bond acceptors/donors does C have?
- C: 2 acceptors (N and O)
- A/T: 1 donor, 1 acceptor
- G: 2 donors, 1 acceptor
Thymine (purine/pyrimidine?) substituents? Uracil?
Pyrimidines (1 ring)
- T = 2 carbonyls, one methyl
- U = 2 carbonyls
- C = 1 carbonyl, 1 NH2
Adenine (purine/pyrimidine?) substituents? Guanine?
Purines (2 rings)
- A = 1 NH2
- G = 1 NH2, 1 carbonyl
What are the byproducts of AK DH forming OAA from AK?
What catalyzes the final step of both glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis?
Glucose 6 Phophatase
Starting materials of gluconeogenesis
What catalyzes rate-limiting step in glycogenolysis?
Succinyl CoA Synthetase catalyzes what reaction
Succinyl CoA => Succinate + GTP
What part of mitochondria has high H+ concentration?
- Travels down gradient into matrix
Unpaired electrons => attract to magnets
- Align w/ magnetic fields
Paired electrons => repel magnets
- Oppose magnetic fields
If n = 4, what can l equal?
In the p subshell, what is l and what can m1 be?
l = 1
m1 = -1, 0, or 1
Cation w/ +2 charge
The ionization energy to remove a second electron is _____ than the first
Greater due to larger effective charge of cationic nucleus on electrons
Ionization energy increases from ______ to ______ in a group
Left to right - Left = low ionization energy
What do ionic compounds form?
Large arrays of ions in crystalline solids
- Measured w/ formula weights
What are covalent compounds measured with? - Ionic compounds?
- Covalent = molecular weights - Ionic = formula weights
Stronger electrolyte has _____ and _____
More ions and greater total charge
What does the rate constant depend on?
Temperature and activation energy
Increase pressure on a gaseous system will do what?
Shift equilibrium towards side w/ fewer moles of gas
Increasing temperature of endothermic reaction or decreasing temperature of exothermic reaction does what?
Shifts reaction to right
Does water in the liquid or gas phase appear in equilibrium expressions?
Only gas phase
Exchanges energy but not matter with surroundings
No heat change
Longer hydrocarbons release more or less heat during combustion?
More due to having more reactants