Flashcards in Review 6 Deck (39):
Relate standard ∆G˙ with ∆Grxn
∆G˙ = ∆Grxn + RTlnQ
Negative enthalpy is exothermic or endothermic?
Positive enthalpy is exothermic or endothermic?
What phase has the highest entropy?
What has the lowest?
Gas = highest entropy, solid = lowest
Under what conditions are gases real and not ideal?
No attractive forces b/w them
Graham's Law of effusion
Higher molar mass => leaks more slowly through hole
How do you calculate pressure of gas?
Subtract vapor pressure of water from its measured pressure
Average kinetic energy is directly proportional to _____
Temperature of gas in kelvin
Another equation for n (moles)
n = m/M
- m = mass of gas
- M = molar mass
How many cm^3 in a liter?
Coordinate covalent bond
Bond where one molecules acts as Lewis acid (accepts electrons) and the other acts as Lewis base (donates e-)
- Play role in complex ions
Common ion effect on solubility
Raoult's Law (effect of solutes on boiling point and vapor pressure)
Solutes => decrease vapor pressure => increase boiling point
Effect of solutes on freezing point
Depresses freezing point by disrupting crystal lattice => more energy must be taken out
Solubility of gases in liquids is directly proportional to ______
What molecules would have positive deviation from Raoult's Law?
Unlike molecules => want to get out of solution => higher vapor pressure than expected = positive deviation
Like molecules = negative deviation
Formation of complex ions => what?
More molecules of solid will dissociate (ions are being removed from solution due to complexing)
Mixture of uniform appearance (homogenous)
- Can be solid-solid, gas-solid, gas-gas, etc.
Moles of solute/kg of solvent
Boiling point/freezing point change
∆T = i*K*m
- i = # of ions it dissociates into
- K = initial boiling/freezing point
- m = molality
How many liters of 2 M Ba(OH)2 are needed to titrate a 4 L solution of 6 M H3PO4?
- NaVa = NbVb
- N (normality) = molarity * number of OH or H+
- Na of Ba(OH2) = 2*2 = 4
- Nb of H3PO4 = 3*6 = 18
3.4 x 10^-6 Ka correlates to what pH?
- 6 - 0.34 = 5.66 pH
Gram equivalent weight of phosphoric acid
- Molar mass = 98g
- 3 protons => divide molar mass by 3 for weight of one acid/base
Acids ending in -ic are derivatives of anions ending in _____
-ate => -ic
Acids ending in -ous are derivatives of anions ending in _____
-ite => -ous
What has more O: -ate or -ite?
Chlorate chemical formula
Chlorite chemical formula
Oxidation = ____ (more/less) bonds to O or ____ bonds to H
More bonds to O
Less bonds to H
Element appears with different oxidation states in two different products
Type of galvanic cell where both electrodes are made of same material
E˙cell = ____ - _____
E°cell = E°red,cathode − E°red,anode
Electrolytic cell process
Break compound into constituent ions
- Cations => cathode
- Anions => anode
Relate ∆G and E
∆G = -nFE
- n = moles of electrons (from half reactions)
- F = Faraday's constant
In a galvanic cell, species with higher reduction potential is _____
Relate ∆G and Keq
∆G = -RTln(Keq)
Negative lnKeq => positive ∆G