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Flashcards in Review Deck (118):
1

4 major classes of molecules

Lipids
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Nucleic acids

2

Monomers

Building blocks of a polymer

3

Polymers

Many monomers linked together with covalent bonds

4

Dehydration

The formation of polymers
Water is a product

5

Hydrolysis

How polymers are broken
Water is a reactant

6

Homopolymers

Polymers made with identical monomers

7

Heteropolymers

Polymers made with difference monomers

8

Carb energy storage

Humans- Glycogen
Plants- Starch

9

Carb energy transport

Blood- Glucose
Plants- Sucrose

10

Carb building material

Plants- Cellulose
Arthropods- Chitin

11

Molecular recognition & communication on/at the cell surface

Glycoproteins
Glycolipids
Ex: MHC complex on surface of human cells

12

Simple sugar

3-7 carbons
Hydroxyl & carbonyl groups
Ex: Glucose, Fructose

13

Disaccharide

2 monosaccharides linked together
Ex: Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose

14

Oligosaccharide

A few monosaccharides linked together

15

Cellulose
Glucose linkage: 1-4 Beta

Principle component of plant cell walls

16

1-4 linkage of beta glucose monomers

Each OH group is alternating on the top or bottom of the carbon ring

17

1-4 linkage of alpha glucose monomers

All OH groups are in the same orientation

18

Chitin
Glucose linkage: 1-4 Beta

Principal component of arthropod exoskeletons and fungal cell walls

19

Difference between chitin and cellulose

Chitin has an acetyl amine group instead of one of the hydroxyl groups

20

Hydrophobic

Water fearing

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Hydrophilic

Water loving

22

Carbohydrate

Simple sugar containing aldehydes or ketones with 3-7 carbons

23

Lipid

Hydrophobic chains often with hydrophilic functional groups attached

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Lipid energy storage

Very compact fuel storage- 2X more than carbs

25

Lipid fuel molecules

Fatty acids are oxidized in the mitochondria, with ATP as a product

26

Lipid membrane formation

Phospholipids and glycolipids self-assemble into bilayers in aqueous solution

27

Lipid communication

steroid hormones
secondary communicators

28

Lipid protection

Adipose tissue that cushions tissues

29

Insulation

Adipose tissue has low thermal conductivity

30

Fatty acids (amphipathic)

-Unbranched, hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain
-Hydrophilic carboxyl group (16-20 carbons: Saturated or unsaturated)

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Triglycerides

Fatty acid esters of glycerol
Animals: Solid at room temp.- Mostly saturated
Plants: Liquid at room temp.- Mostly unsaturated

32

Membrane lipids

Amphipathic lipids that form bilayers when placed in aqueous solution
Ex: Phosphoglycerides, sphingolipids, and cholesterol

33

Micelle formation

Favoured when cross-sectional area of head group is greater than the side chains (sphere-like)

34

Bilayer formation

Favoured when cross-sectional area of head group is equal to side chains (phospholipids line-like)

35

Liposome

Sphere where a phospholipid bilayer encloses an aqueous compartment (hydrophilic heads surround water)

36

Steroids

Carbon skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings- amphipathic, rigid, planar
Ex: Cholesterol

37

Amphipathic

A molecule having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts

38

Hydrophobic interactions

Water molecules are able to form H bonds among themselves but not with the hydrocarbon chains

39

Van der waals interactions

Attractive forces between hydrophobic molecules (weakest of all interactions)

40

Proteins

Polymers of amino acids

41

Protein catalysts

Enzymes

42

Protein defence

Antibodies (immunoglobulins)

43

Protein structural support

Collagen and elastic in animal connective tissue
Ex: Keratin in hair, feathers

44

Protein transport

Hemoglobin
Membrane transporters

45

Protein storage

Ovalbumin, Casein, Gluten, Zein

46

Protein communication

Hormones (Ex: Insulin)
Cell surface receptors

47

Protein movement

Actin, Myosin in muscle
Tubulin, Dynein in microtubules

48

Amino acid monomers

All amino acids possess an amino group and a carboxyl group w/ at least 1 asymmetric carbon

49

Non-polar amino acids

Hydrophobic
In centre of protein
Also in proteins that are part of membranes

50

Polar, uncharged amino acids

Hydrophilic
Can form H bonds

51

Electrically charged amino acids

Acidic: negatively charged
Basic: positively charged
Charge changes w/ pH

52

Peptide bonds

Amino acids joined together by dehydration reactions to give a peptide bond

53

Polypeptides

Any string of amino acids up to 50

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Oligopeptides

Have up to 10 amino acids

55

Primary protein structure

Linear order of amino acids in the polymer

56

Secondary protein structure

Local twists and bends of the amino chain
(stabilized by H bonds formed in the backbone)
Alpha-helix, Beta-strand, or Beta-pleated sheet

57

Tertiary protein structure

The overall bending and folding of a polypeptide chain into its 3D shape
(stabilized by R interactions)

58

Quaternary protein structure

Association of more than one polypeptide chain to form an intact protein

59

Protein shape

Influences protein function- If loses shape, loses function
Many proteins can flip states therefore flipping functions

60

Chaperones

Proteins that facilitate protein folding

61

Nucleic acids

Used in the storage and transfer of genetic information

62

DNA

Pairing up of bases (ACTG)
Double helix
H bonds and Van der Waals

63

Components of membrane

Lipids
Proteins
Carbs

64

Peripheral protein

Doesn't entirely pass through the membrane

65

Integral protein

Passes through the membrane

66

Functions of the membrane

Selectively permeable
Energy transduction
Separating function
Some enzymatic activity
Intercellular joining
Anchorage

67

E-face

Exterior face (external face)

68

P- face

Protoplasmic face (internal face)

69

Membrane fluidity

Movement of membrane components
Types of motion:
Lateral, rotation, flexing of fatty acid chains, flip-flop transverse diffusion

70

Factors affecting membrane fluidity

Temp:
-Low= High viscosity, Low fluidity
-High= Low viscosity, High fluidity
Liquid comp.:
-Longer fatty acid chain= Lower fluidity
-Saturated chains= Lower fluidity
Cis vs. Trans configuration
Presence of sterols

71

Passive transport

Diffusion of a substance across a membrane with no energy investment

72

Osmosis

Simple diffusion of free water across a selectively permeable membrane

73

Molarity

Number of moles of solute per litre

74

Mole

Number of grams of a substance that equals its molecular weight

75

Osmolarity

Number of osmoles of a substance per litre of solution

76

Osmole

Amount of substance that results in Avogadro's number of particles when placed in a solution

77

Osmotic pressure

Measure of the tendency of a solution to take up water when separated from pure water by a selectively permeable membrane

78

Tonicity

Ability of a solution to cause a cell within it to gain or lose water

79

Isotonic

Having the same solute concentration as another solution

80

Hypertonic

In comparing 2 solutions, the one with the greater concentration

81

Hypotonic

In comparing 2 solutions, the one with the lower concentration

82

Facilitated diffusion

Passive transport mediated by channel proteins and carrier proteins

83

Channel proteins

Possess a hydrophilic channel through which atomic ions and some small molecules can pass through

84

Carrier proteins

Undergo a shape change which takes small ions or molecules across

85

Active transport

Movement of a substance across a membrane, through a transport protein, against a chemical or electrochemical gradient (Uses ATP)

86

Exocytosis

Vesicular removal of molecules to the extracellular fluid

87

Endocytosis

Vesicular uptake of molecules from the extracellular fluid

88

Phagocytosis

Uptake of large, bulky material

89

Pinocytosis

Non-specific uptake of fluid from extracellular fluid

90

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

Uptake of specific molecules from extracellular fluid

91

Cell theory

All living things are composed of cells and the products of cells. The cell is the functional unit of life.

92

Microscopes

TEM (internal details)
SEM (surface details)
Light (magnifies surface)

93

Magnification

Ratio of an object's image to it's real size
An increase in the apparent size of an object

94

Resolving power

Minimum distance between 2 points can be separated and still be distinguished as 2 separate points

95

Prokaryotic cells

Small and "simple"
Bacteria and archaea
Contain ribosomes and cell walls

96

Eukaryotic cells

True nucleus
Animals, plants, fungi, and protists
Containing membrane-bounded organelles

97

Nucleus

DNA synthesis
RNA synthesis
Assembly of ribosomal subunits
Nuclear envelope = Double membrane

98

Ribosomes

Polypeptide synthesis
Free ribosomes (in cytosol)
Bound ribosomes- To ER

99

Rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Synthesis of membrane proteins
Secretory proteins
Hydrolytic enzymes
Formation of transport vesicles

100

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Lipid synthesis
Carb metabolism in liver cells
Detoxification in liver cells
Calcium ion storage

101

Golgi apparatus

Modification
Temp. storage
Transport of macromolecules
Formation of lysosomes and transport vesicles

102

Vesicles

Transport substances from one part of the endo-membrane system to another

103

Lysosomes

Digestion of nutrients, bacteria, & damaged organelles
Destruction of certain cells during embryonic development

104

Peroxisomes

Organelles that transfer H from various substrates to Oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide

105

Vacuoles

Digestion in plant cells
Storage of chemicals
Cell enlargement
Water balance

106

Chloroplasts

Conversion of light energy to chemical
Energy of sugars
Double membrane

107

Chemiosmosis

Energy coupling mechanism using energy stored in H ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work (ATP)

108

Endosymbiotic theory

Chloroplasts and mitochondria arose 2 billion years ago from bacteria that were engulfed by early eukaryotic cells

109

Mitochondria

Conversion of chemical energy of food too chemical energy of ATP
Powerhouse of the cell
Double membrane

110

Cytoskeleton

Maintenance of cell shape
Anchorage from organelles
Movement of organelles within cells
Cell movement
Mechanical transmission of signals from exterior to interior

111

Microtubules

Largest diameter protein

112

Microfilaments

Smallest diameter protein

113

Intermediate filaments

Middle diameter protein

114

Cell walls

Maintenance of cell shape and skeletal support
Surface protection
Binding of cells in tissues

115

Extracellular matrix

Binding of cells in tissues
Surface protection
Regulation of cellular activities

116

Cell junctions

Communication between cells
Binding of cells in tissues

117

Plant cell walls

Cellulose microfibrils in a matrix of other polysaccharides and proteins
Protects the cell
Maintain the shape
Prevent excess water intake

118

Animal cell surface

Intercellular junctions:
-Tight junctions: Diffusion barrier
-Demosomes: Anchoring junctions
-Gap junctions: Communication junctions extracellular matrix
Glycoproteins and other proteins linked
Used for anchorage, support, tissue formation, and gene expression