Review 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Review 8 Deck (40):
1

Lactam

Cyclic amide

- Formed by ammonia/amine attacking COOH

2

Lactone

Cyclic ester

- Formed by OH attacking COOH

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3

Anhydride

COOH attacking COOH

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4

What can reduce COOH?

LiAlH4 (strong reducing agent)

 

- NaBH4 is not strong enough to reduce COOH, only aldehyde/ketone

5

Beta-keto acid can be decarboxylated under _____

Heat (spontaneous)

 

- Lose C as CO2 - Anything w/ COOH and carbonyl two carbons over

6

Fatty acid (w/ COOH) + strong base => _____

Soap (saponification)

- Long fatty tail nonpolar interior

- Carboxylate polar exterior

- Salt of carboxylate anion

7

Do strong or weak bases make good LG?

Weak bases

8

What type of molecule is ethyl acetate?

Ester

- Somewhat polar

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9

Fischer esterification

COOH + OH under acidic conditions

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10

-oate suffix

Ester

11

React ammonia w/ anhydride => _____

Amide + COOH

12

Inclined plane magnitude of force perpendicular to plane

mgcos(∂)

13

Inclined plane magnitude of force parallel to plane

mgsin(∂)

14

Normal force in inclined plane

mgcos(∂)

15

Elastic potential energy

U = 1/2kx^2

16

Mechanical advantage

- Efficiency

Fout/Fin

- E = Wout/Win

17

Work formula

Fdcos(∂)

18

Power

W/t = ∆E/t

19

Strecker synthesis generates ____ from ______

- Intermediates

AA from aldehyde, KCN, NH4Cl

- Imine, nitrile, aminonitrile

20

Gabriel synthesis generates ____ from what?

- Types of reactions used

AA from potassium phthalamide, diethylbromomalonate, and an alkyl halide

- Two Sn2, hydrolysis, decarboxylation

21

Pyrophosphate

PPi - P2O7(4-)

22

Phosphoric acid has ____ hydrogens

3 H - H3PO4

23

As DNA is synthesized, it releases what kind of phosphate?

Pyrophosphate

24

Deshielded aldehyde H-NMR chemical shift - Carboxylic acid - Aromatic ring

9.0 ppm - 11 ppm - 7 ppm

25

- Alkyl chemical shift

- Alkene shift

- Alkyne shift

- 0-3 ppm

- 4-6 ppm

- 2-3 ppm

26

In column chromatography, which polarity compound elutes first?

Less polar elutes first - Travels more rapidly due to nonpolar mobile phase

27

What temperature of solvent is used for gravity filtration and why?

Hot solvent => keeps product soluble

28

Zeroth law of thermodynamics

Same temp = thermal equilibrium

29

First law of thermo

- Formula

Conservation of energy

- ∆U = Q - W

(W = work done by system)

30

Second law of thermo

Entropy (universe goes towards disorder)

31

Thermal expansion equation

∆L = aL∆T

- L = change in length

- a = coefficient of linear expansion

- T = change in temperature

32

Process functions (AKA non-state functions)

Work and heat - Pathway-dependent

33

Oil and water separate into two layers after mixing: entropy increase or decrease?

Ink intersperses throughout water after mixing: entropy increase or decrease?

- Neither: remains 0 (reversible)

- Increase b/c more disordered (irreversible = positive entropy change)

34

At constant volume, temperature and pressure are _____

Directly proportional

35

Gauge pressure equation

P - Patm = (Po + pgz) - Patm

- Depends only on density (p) of fluid, not of object

- If pressure at surface = Patm => gauge pressure = pgz

- Gauge pressure = total pressure beyond atmospheric pressure

- P = absolute/hydrostatic pressure (Po + pgz)

36

Pascal's Principle equation (P, F, A)

P = F/A

37

Buoyant force equation

mass of fluid displaced * g

p(fluid) * V(displaced) * g

38

Relate work and voltage

W = ∆U = q∆V

39

Magnetic field equation

B = uI / 2πr

40

Electric field formula

E = kQ/r^2

F/q = E