How do physical development and social readiness play into toilet training?
They have to be able to handle putting on their clothes with little help and control their bodies/functions; this will be a process/need patience
The biological system looks at? psychological system? sociocultural system?
biology: physical growth cognition: memory growth environment: religion, family, culture
Zone of proximal development
a child has a certain amount of skill and you can't teach them something way above their knowledge or skill level, you have to build off increments and build knowledge and skill
The fetus is more susceptible to harm in the __ trimester
What is different about the way toddlers interact with their environment compared to infants?
Learn to make judgements about what's around them and adjusting accordingly
Why is play important in toddlerhood? is cooperative play typical at this age?
Start to develop gross and fine motor skills better, synapses develop better or prune; no parallel play (learning to share)
Which children are more indecent, those with secure or insecure attachment?
What is the vocab of a typical three year old?
50-250 words; "why" "me do it"
Psychoanalytical theorists (5)
How much TV should children watch before age 2?
what are some interventions for parents with a toddler who is experiencing separation anxiety?
Gradual--using familiar family members to help babysit and reminders that you will be leaving; start out gradual
What are the three reflexes that all infants are born with?
Moro - startle reflex
Rooting - suckling
Grasp - wraps fingers around anything that touches palm
What can be some issues around maternal stress?
Hormones crossing the placental barrier and the fetus becoming stressed as well; too much too often can be harmful
What about family support and siblings with a new baby coming?
Make sure the kids how they will still be apart of the family and prepare them to be a big bro/sis
How do an infant's experiences literally shape the infant's brain?
Pruning synapses that are not used; specializing in what they are good at and constantly doing
What is the parents role in infants language development?
encourage and respond
what are sociocultural factors?
social and cultural (environmental) influences on development
how can counselors support toddlers (and their families) who are showing signs of gender dysphoria?
Support, education, helping to facilitate communication in a healthy way; teaching coping skills and exploration
Freud's stages of development
1. Oral-learning through eating, sucking, tasting
2. Anal-learning through bodily functions; interactions
3. Phallic-learning about being in a family
4. Latent-learning outside family; social skills
5. Genital-finding social role; hormones-sexual orientation
What are the four types of child neglect?
Physical, medial, educational, emotional
What do we mean when we say that human development is multidisciplinary?
medical, psychological, sociological, neurological, ect.
What are some relationship concerns during pregnancy?
planned pregnancy? frustrations with communication; body image; sexuality; mood
Psychosexual developmental theorist
father of behaviorism
John. B. Watson
Piaget's stages of development
1. sensorimotor - infants learn through sending
2. preoperational - toddlers believe everyone sees the world the way they do; conservation theory
3. concerete operations - school age children develop logic of simple operations right in front of them
4. formal operations - reasoning and testing and logic with more complex problems
What are some sleep management techniques?
Extinction--letting child cry it out
Ferber method--slowly backing off; but responding for short periods telling the kid you're there
Immediate Responding--responding to all cries
What term do we want to avoid to describe a individuals development?
normal vs. abnormal
Who are mandatory reports in the state of Nebraska?
How does physical development in toddlerhood compare with that of infants? Slower? Same?`
Treating mental health issues with drugs at this time?
situational and depends on safety concerns