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Flashcards in review exam 3 Deck (98)
1

True concerning arachidonic acid

It is found in cell membrane of all tissue cells

2

Faldo arachidonic acid

Soluble in bloodProteinAspirin will inhibit it's release from cell membrane

3

True prostaglandins

1. Synthesized in the cell only when needed 2. Can cause fevers, inflammation, and induce labor3. Synthesized from arachidonic acid 4. Acts like a hormones

4

False prostaglandins

Synthesized only in the liverThey have physiological activity only in large amounts

5

Affected by prostaglandins

1. Inflammatory response 2. Stimulation of uterine contractions3. Reduction of gastric secretions 4. Production of fevers5. Some raise BP while others Lower 6. Some induce blood clotting others inhibit

6

Drug that inhibits phospholipase (Thus prevents arachidonic acid from being hydrolyzed from the phospholipid)

Cortisone

7

Drug that inhibits both cyclooxygenase enzymes

Aspirin

8

Drug that inhibits only the COX2 enzyme Thus it is an anti inflammatory, but does not affect the stomach

Celebrex VIOXX

9

True cell membranes

1. Bilayer with hydrophilic end on outside2. Cell membranes, used for protection will have greater amounts of lipids than protein3. Contains protein channels allows small polar molecules to move through4. Major component is phospholipid

10

False cell membrane

Prevents lipids like steroids from moving through

11

True cholesterol

1. Found in brain, function unclear2. Not found in plants3. Basic component four rings fused together4. Excess carbs in the diet can be converts to cholesterol 5. Found in most cell membranes6. Can precipitate out gallstones

12

False cholesterol

1. Body cannot make cholesterol2. Needs vitamin D for it's synthesis

13

NOT synthesized from cholesterol

1. Oxytocin2. Prothrombin

14

Synthesized from cholesterol

1. Vitamin D2. Estrogen3. Cortisol4. Bile salts

15

Galactose

Protein channel to move into cell

16

Carbon dioxide

Can move through cell membrane

17

Polysaccharide

Cannot get into

18

Amino acid

Protein channel to move into cell

19

Steroid hormone

Can move right through cell membrane

20

Insulin

Cannot get into cell

21

Cholesterol

Can move right through cell membrane

22

Glycogen

Cannot get into cell

23

Not purpose of fat

Very quick energy

24

Purpose of fat

1. Insulation2. Protection of vital organs3. Provide energy after glycogen reserves are gone

25

True about LDL's

1. Contain serum globulins2. High levels of LDLs are associated with cardiovascular disease

26

False about LDL's

1. Healthy adults should have a high LDL value2. Transport cholesterol from cell to liver 3. Have low density because more protein than lipids

27

True salt bridges

1. Between two chains of a enzyme 2. Affected by pH changes

28

False salt bridges

1. Strongest tertiary interaction (disulfide)2. Found in proteins secondary structure3. Involved in hair permanents

29

Form salt bridge with arginine

Aspartic acid

30

Hydrogen bond with serine

1. Aspartic acid2. Lysine3. Asparagine4. Water5. Ethanol

31

Replaced MOST often

Enzymes

32

Strongest structure

Triple helixes

33

Replaced least often

Collagen

34

Water soluble

1. Globular proteins2. Disaccharide 3. Lactose4. Triose5. Ethanol

35

Not water soluble

1. Oils2. Steroids3. Fatty acid4. Prostaglandin5. Triglyceride

36

Actin

Muscle fiber

37

Casein

Milk protein

38

Elastin

Connective tissue like artery wall

39

Ferritin

Store Fe in spleen

40

Lysozyme

Destroys bacteria's cell wall

41

Fibroin

Silk

42

Electrophoresis TRUE

1. A.A is at IE will not move2. All A.A. Can be neutral, positive, negative, dependent on solvent used3. If a solvent with a pH 6.0 is used, lysine will move to the negative electrode4. When solvent has PH of 6.0 none of nonpolar a.a will move5. pH 2.0 tyrosine will move to negative electrode

43

Milk has pH of 6.4 Casein IE 4.6TRUE

1. pH of 6.4 casein will remain in solution2. Insoluble casein is called curds3. Bacteria in sour milk will produce lactic acid, so sour milk will have pH below 6.4

44

Milk has pH of 6.4 Casein IE 4.6FALSE

1. pH 4.6 casein will be most soluble2. Casein is an enzyme

45

True of collagen

1. Found in tendons, teeth, bone 2. Most abundant proteins in humans3. Involved in tanning of hides 4. Jello partially hydrolyzed collagen

46

False collagen

Strength is due to B sheets

47

Hydrogen bonding of C=O with N-H of amide bond

2

48

Salt bridges

3

49

B sheets

2

50

Four subunits in immunoglobulins

4

51

Alpha helix

2

52

Disulfide bond

3

53

amide linkages

1

54

Hydrogen bonding of side chains

3

55

Triple helix in collagens three separate chains

4

56

True blood proteins

1. Serum albumins are used to maintain osmotic pressure2. Immunoglobulins are also called antibodies3. Serum globulins form complexes LDL and HDL4. Most blood proteins are synthesized in the liver5. Albumen transport fatty acids

57

False blood proteins

1. In an emergency proteins in the blood are used for energy2. Fibrinogen concentrations is always constant

58

Where would you find covalent bonding

Disulfide bonds

Peptide bond linking two amino acids

Irreversible inhibition

59

No covalent bonding

Substrate- enzyme interaction

Competitive inhibition

Allosteric activation

60

True trypsinogen and trypsin

Trypsin has catalytic ability while trypsinogen does not

The substrate for trypsin is a protein

61

False trypsinogen and trypsin

1. Trypsin is a protein while trypsinogen is not
2. Trypsin is a larger protein
3. Both have catalytic ability but not for the same substrate
4. Found in the stomach
5. Trypsin optimum pH is 2

62

Vasopressin has amino acid sequence TRUE

Cys-tyr-phe-gln-asn-Cys-pro-leu-gln

1. Nonapeptide
2. Similar function to aldoaterone
3. Inhibited by alcohol
4. Form an internal disulfide bone

63

Vasopressin has amino acid sequence FALSE

Cys-tyr-phe-gln-asn-Cys-pro-leu-gln

1. Increase the amount of water retained by the kidney
2. Used to induce labor

64

TRUE denaturing a protein

1. Secondary structure might be changed
2. Can be caused by heat or chemicals or heavy metals
4. Permanent at high temps
5. Permanent at high or low pH

65

FALSE denaturing proteins

1. Primary structure might be altered
2. Always reversible

66

TRUE acetylcholine

1. Ester linkage
2. Deficiency in the brain is involved with Alzheimer's
3. Neurotransmitter
4. A molecule that blocks the receptor site on a muscle can be used as a muscle relaxant

67

FALSE acetylcholine

1. Cannot be hydrolyzed
2. Cannot be synthesized by the body

68

TRUE acetylcholineesterase

1. Hydrolyzed acetylcholine
2. Permanently inhibited by nerve gas
3. If inhibited can cause over stimulation of muscles, convulsions, death
4. One treatment of Alzheimer's disease inhibits this enzyme
5. Incredibly fast turnover rate

69

FALSE acetylcholinesterase

1. Used to convert choline and acetate (acetic acid) to acetylcholine
2. Inhibited by botulism

70

True curare

1. Small quantities it can be used as a muscle relaxant
2. Competitive inhibitor of acetylcholine
3. Cause paralysis and death

71

False curare

1. Inactivates acetylcholinesterase
2. Inhibits release of acetylcholine from original nerve ending

72

True non competitive inhibitors

1. Binds at a site other than substrates active site
2. Allosteric enzyme inhibitors are examples

73

False noncompetitive inhibitors

1.inhibitor resembles the substrate
2. Can be reversed by adding more substrate
3. Example is ethanol as antidote for methanol poisoning

74

Original injury will cause formation of

Thromboplastin

75

Compound causes conversion fibrinogen to fibrin

Thrombin

76

Actual blood clot

Fibrin

77

Destroys blood clot when no longer needed

Plasmin

78

Found in blood plasma but not blood serum

Fibrinogen

79

Three things needed for prothrombin to be concerted active enzyme

Thromboplastin

Calcium ions

Vitamin k

80

When a clot moves within blood vessel

Embolism

81

Anticoagulant which is found in small quantities in the blood

Heparin

82

Prescription drug given to patients after heart attacks as a blood thinner

Coumadin

83

Precipitates calcium ions thus preventing blood clotting

Citric acid

84

Found in broccoli and spinach

Vitamin k

85

Reacts with hydrolase enzymes in the body

1. Polysaccharides
2. Sunflower oil
3. Beef fat
4. Insulin

86

Would NOT react with hydrolase enzymes in the body

1. Glycerol. 2. Testosterone 3. Prostaglandins. 4. Fatty acid. 5. Estrogen

87

Affect activity of ALL enzymes

1 pH
2 temperature
3. Substrate saturation
4. Genetic control to increase concentration of the enzyme

88

Change in temp graph

Upside down U

89

Concentration of enzymes (assume excess substrate)

Linear graph

90

Concentration of substrate (enzyme concentration remains constant)

Increase then level graph

91

Change in pH

Upside down U graph

92

TRUE lead poisoning

1. Can cause mental retardation
2. Acute lead poisoning antidote is to give egg whites to complex with lead then pump stomach
3 noncompetitive inhibition found in places where lead paint is used

93

FALSE lead poisoning

1. Always irreversible
2. Comes from eating too much fish

94

Enzymes would be synthesized first as a zymogen

Protein digesting enzymes

Blood clotting enzymes

95

Has physiological activity (without adding any other group)!

Holo enzyme

96

Inactive protein part (without cofactors) of an enzyme

Apoenzyme

97

What is the cofactors plus the protein part called

Holoenzyme

98

What is the cofactors that is organic but not a protein called

Coenzymes