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Flashcards in Review of basic concepts Deck (38)
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1

RNA is produced from DNA via a process called____

Transcription

2

DNA reproduces itself via a process called_____

Replication

3

RNA then directs the production of proteins through a process called____

translation.

4

Cells that are functioning normally produce and replicate ____ ____ and ____ as indicated in the flow diagram.

Nucleic acid and proteins

5

List two functions of DNA

Stable storage of genetic information & Transmission of genetic information.

6

Stable storage of genetic information is the source of information for synthesis of __ ____.

All proteins

7

Transmission of genetic information is the template for _____ of genetic information.

Replication

8

List four nitrogenous bases found in DNA nucleotides.

Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Thymine (T), and Guanine (G).

9

List two purine base

A and G

10

List two pyrimidines base.

T and C

11

Thymine always binds to ____

Adenine

12

cytosine always binds to ___

Guanine.

13

DNA is a double stranded molecule with ___ arrangement. Which bonds holds the strands together?

Helical; Hydrogen bonds.

14

DNA strands that are bound together are called _______

Complementary strands.

15

The _____ bases make up DNA nucleotides.

Nitrogenous bases

16

Each nucleotide has a _____- _____ - _____ _____

Deoxyribose tri phosphate base

17

The end of each chain that has the phosphate group is called the _____

5' end

18

The end of each chain that has the OH group is called the ____

3' end

19

The arrangement in which the two complementary chains have their 5' and 3' ends in opposite directions is described as

Antiparallel arrangement

20

The nucleotide complex includes the deoxyribose triphosphate + nitrogenous base. Give a example.

dATP for adenine

21

An enzyme that untwists and separates double stranded DNA strands.

Helicase

22

The point at which the replication takes place is called the

replication fork.

23

An enzyme which attaches to each strand of the DNA and begins adding complementary nucleotides in a 5' to 3' direction.

DNA polymerase

24

One strand which undergo continuous replication by the simple addition of bases that are complementary to the original strand.

Leading strand

25

The other strand which undergo discontinuous replication in pieces of about 1000 base pairs called

Okazaki fragments which happens on lagging strand.

26

An enzyme which fills in the gaps between the Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand.

DNA ligase

27

How is RNA differ from DNA?

RNA is single stranded. The sugar in the RNA backbone is ribose. and the nitrogenous base uracil is included in the RNA. Nucleotides in RNA are noted as rATP or ATP rather than dATP as in DNA.

28

Instead of the Thymine found in DNA, what is found in RNA?

Uracil

29

DNA codes for production of ____ during transcription.

mRNA.

30

What are the steps in transcription for production of mRNA.

-2 strands of double stranded DNA separate. -RNA polymerase II binds to appropriate sequence (promoter). - rNTPs pair with complementary bases on the DNA strand. -RNA transcript detaches from DNA, undergoes modi. to become a mature RNA molecule.