Review of Men's and Women's Pathophysiology Flashcards Preview

Men's and Women's Health > Review of Men's and Women's Pathophysiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Review of Men's and Women's Pathophysiology Deck (84):
1

What is produced in the gonads?

germ cells (gametogenesis)

2

What are types of gametogenesis?

Spermatogenesis
Oogenesis

3

What are secreted from the gonads?

Sex hormones:
Androgens
Estrogens

4

What do androgen do the testes secrete?

Testosterone

5

What estrogens do the ovaries secrete?

Estrogen and progesterone

6

What regulates gonadotropins?

Hypothalmic GnRH

7

What are the two kinds of gonadotropins?

FSH
LH

8

What does FSH do in females?

Regulates ovarian follicle development
Stimulates ovarian estrogen production

9

What does FSH do in males?

Stimulates seminiferous tubule development
Regulates spermatogenesis

10

What does LH do in females?

Mediates ovulation
Maintenance of the corpus luteum

11

What does LH do in males?

Induces Leydig cell testosterone synthesis and secretion

12

What is the penis made up of?

Erectile tissue (corpus cavernosum)

13

What is the urethra?

Connects urinary bladder to external genitalia

14

What regulates the temperature of the sperm?

Scrotum

15

What is the scrotum?

External sac contains testes and epididymis

16

What temperature does the scrotum keep the sperm at?

89.6F

17

What is the site of spermatogenesis and sex hormone production?

Testes

18

What is the epididymis?

Ducts in the testes that store sperm during the maturation process

19

What does the vas deferens connect?

Epididymis to urethra

20

What does the prostate surround?

Urethera

21

What does the prostate secrete?

Milky fluid that contributes to the bulk of semen

22

Where is the seminal vesicle located?

Base of the bladder

23

What does the seminal vesicle do?

Empty secretions (along with sperm) into the ejactulatory duct during emission and ejaculation
Secretions add to the volume of the sperm

24

What is the principle hormone of the testes?

Testosterone

25

Where is testosterone synthesized?

Leydig cells

26

What is testosterone synthesized from?

Cholesterol

27

What are the organs and hormones involved in testosterone synthesis?

Hypothalamus -> GnRH -> pituitary -> LH -> testes -> testosterone

28

What type of feed back is used when testosterone is too high?

Negative

29

What are the functions of testosterone?

Sex organ development (embryonic development)
Development of secondary sex characteristics (puberty)
Sperm production, stimulation of libido and normal sexual function, and maintenance of muscle and bone mass (adulthood)

30

What blood vessel is needed for initiation of an erection?

Arterioles of the penis

31

What does the erectile tissue fill with during an erection?

Blood

32

What type of nerve impulses occur during an erection?

Parasympathetic (spinal cord -> penis)

33

What gas is formed during an erection?

NO

34

What organo-phosphate is increased during an erection?

cGMP

35

What is cGMP?

Potent vasodilator

36

What are the parts of the spinal reflex in ejaculation?

Emission
Ejaculation

37

What happens during emission?

Movement of semen into urethra

38

What happens during ejaculation?

Propulsion of semen from urethra at time of orgasm

39

What is in semen?

Contain sperm and other secretions

40

What is the average volume of semen per ejaculate?

2.5-3.5mL

41

How much sperm is in 1mL of semen?

100 million sperm

42

What is sloughed off during menstruation?

Endometrium

43

Where is the vagina?

Inferior region of the birth canal

44

What is the cervix?

Outlet that projects into the vagina

45

What is the uterus?

A hollow organ that functions to receive and nourish a fertilized oocyte until birth

46

What does the fallopian tubes connect?

Ovaries and uterus

47

What are fimbriae?

Fingerlike projections in the fallopian tubes

48

What are fimbriae used for?

Help move the oocyte down the uterine cavity

49

What are the naturally occurring estrogens?

Estradiol
Estrone
Estriol

50

What are the organs and hormones that control estrogen production?

Hypothalamus -> GnRH -> Pituitary -> FSH -> estrogens

51

What kind of feedback mechanism occurs if levels of estrogen are too high?

Negative

52

What are the sources of estrogen during pre-menopause?

Ovaries
Adrenal gland
Adipose tissue

53

What are the sources of estrogen during post-menopause?

Adipose tissue
Adrenal gland

54

What are the functions of estrogen?

Sex organ development
Expression of secondary sexual characteristics
Pregnancy maintenance
Prevents osteoporosis
Enhance the coagulability of blood

55

What secondary characteristics does estrogen control?

Development of ductile system in breasts
Breast enlargement at puberty

56

How does estrogen prevent osteoporosis?

Inhibits stimulatory effects of certain cytokines on osteoclasts

57

What organ controls proestrogen secretion?

Ovaries

58

What type of feedback controls progesterone secretion?

Negative

59

What are the functions of progesterone?

Expression of secondary sexual characteristics
Slows GnRH pulse frequency (transition between phases in the menstrual cycle)
Pregnancy maintenance
Increases basal body temperature

60

What are the stages of the ovarian follicles during the menstrual cycle?

Secondary
Antral
Dominant
Ovulation
Corpus luteum
Corpus albicans

61

What are the stages of the menstrual cycle?

Follicular phase
Luteal phase

62

What does the estrogen graph look like during the menstrual cycle?

Slow increase until dominant follicle (exaggerated peak just after)
Immediate drop before ovulation
Raises close to peak at the beginning of corpus luteum then moderate decline

63

What does the progesterone graph look like during the menstrual cycle?

0 then rises during ovulation, peaks in the middle of corpus luteum, then decreases back to 0 after corpus albicans

64

When does vaginal bleeding occur?

Shedding of the urine mucosa

65

When does the follicular phase occur?

Days 6-14
Starts after menses

66

What does FSH cause?

Follicles in the ovaries to grow
Dominate follicle to release ovum on day 14

67

What does increased estrogen cause?

Growth and thickening of the endometrium

68

What hormone surges during ovulation?

LH -> ovum released from follicle

69

When does the luteal phase start?

Days 15-28
Starts after ovulation

70

How is the corpus luteum formed?

From the ruptured follicle

71

What does the corpus luteum secrete?

Estrogen and progesterone

72

What does increased progesterone do?

Prepares the uterine lining for pregnancy

73

What happens to the corpus luteum if pregnancy occurs?

Persists and continues to secrete estrogen and progesterone

74

What happens to the corpus luteum if pregnancy does not occur?

Corpus luteum degenerates and is replaced by scar tissue (corpus albicans)

75

What happens due to decrease in progesterone?

Induces endometrial shedding

76

What is the definition of puberty?

Endocrine and gametogenic functions of the gonads have developed to the point where reproduction is possible

77

What is thelarche?

Breast development

78

What is pubarche (adrenarche) in women?

Public and axillary hair development

79

What is menarche?

First menstrual period

80

What is adrenarche in men?

Secretion of adrena androgens

81

What does adrenarche cause in men?

Development of secondary sex characteristics

82

What happens to the ovaries during menopause?

Become unresponsive to gonadotropins with advanced age

83

What hormones are decreased during menopause?

Estrogen and progesterone

84

What happens to the uterus and vagina during menopause?

Gradually becomes atrophic