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Flashcards in Review pre-midterm Deck (60):
1

Where is the cough center located?

Brainstem

2

What is a non-productive cough?

Cough not producing expulsion of tracheobronchial material

3

Parent class of diphenhydramine

Antihistamine

4

Catecholamines function in the sympathetic or parasympathetic part of the ANS?

Sympathetic

5

What is Propanolol and what effect does it have?

It's a beta-adrenergic blocker
It has the effect of a negative inotropic agent

6

When would you administer Doxapram (Dopram-V)?

After a c-section, administer to puppies in respiratory distress

7

What does an IV administration of Lidocaine w/o epinephrine treat?

Ventricular tachycardia
Ventricular pre-mature contractions (VPCs)

8

What drugs have the greatest margin of safety, the ones with a high or low therapeutic index?

The higher the index, the safer the drug

9

Term used to describe study of how drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated (ADME) by the body.

Pharmacokinetics

10

What schedule drug cannot be prescribed by a DVM?

Schedule I or CI drug

11

What does ED50 stand for?

A drug dose producing an observable effect in 50% of test subjects.

12

When does a drug given by IV peak?

Immediately.

13

Which tablets can be physically divided?

Scored tabs

14

Name the primary site of biotransformation.

Liver

15

Expected excretion pathway of lipophilic drugs.

Bile/Feces

16

Which drugs need to be kept in separate inventory and record?

DEA controlled substances

17

What do you call the strength of binding between a drug and its cell receptor surface?

Affinity

18

What do you call the movement of molecules from low concentration to an area of high concentration against the concentration gradient?

Active transport

19

When drugs are absorbed well into the brain after crossing the blood-brain barrier, are they considered to be lipophilic or hydrophilic?

Lipophilic

20

What drug is most commonly combined with an equal amount of diazepam?

Ketamine (KetVal)

21

Name two alpha-2 agonists

Medetomidine
Xylazine

22

What drugs are contraindicated as an anticonvulsant?

Xylazine
Medetomidine

23

Name some anticonvulsants

*Diazepam
*Potassium bromide (endothermic reaction)
*Phenobarbital
*Gabapentin (pain mgmt; stabilizes neural membranes)

24

Which neurotransmitters are associated with the sympathetic nervous system?

Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
Dopamine

25

Name the reversal agent for medetomidine and dexmedetomidine?

Atipamezole (Antisedan)

26

What is Atropine?

An anticholinergic drug

27

What does the hormone Aldosterone do?

It conserves sodium and water (affected by angiotension II)

28

Name a commonly used expectorant.

Guaifenesin (Robitussin)
- also used as a tranquilizer in horses; muscle relaxant)

29

What is Acepromazine?

A phenothiazine class tranquilizer

30

Name an adrenergic agonist drug.

For example:
Dopamine
Norepinephrine
...

31

Name a dissociative anesthetic.

Ketamine and Tiletamine

32

When do you get lots of muscle rigidity w/mild analgesia?

With a dissociative anesthetic like Telazol

33

What kind of drug do you use to reduce the viscosity of respiratory secretions?

A mucolytic

34

What is Propofol classified as?

A hypnotic drug
It is given IV
Looks like milk
Has a short duration of action

35

What is the most common side effect of digoxin use in dogs?

Vomiting

36

How would you treat urinary incontinence in an elderly, female dog?

With a sympathomimetic like *Phenylpropanolamine (the "PP" drug) or
*Winstrol-V (anabolic steroid)

37

How would oxygen gas by used as a drug for therapy?

In a hyperbaric situation

38

Name the tricyclic anti-depressant that is FDA-CVM approved for canine separation anxiety.

Clomipramine (Clomicalm)

39

Current drug of choice to treat CHF

Pimobendin (Vetmedin)
Downside is it's expensive!

40

Is Succinylcholine a paralyzing agent to skeletal muscle?

No.

41

What are Kaolin & Pectin (KaoPectate) and Bismuth subsalicylate (PeptoBismol) examples of?

Protectants and absorbants working within the bowel lumen

42

What does a chronotropic agent primarily affect?

The rate of cardiac pacemaking for the cardiac cycle

43

What do you call the total amount of drug ultimately reaching the target tissue?

Bioavailability

44

What does the hepatic first pass effect do?

It decreases the effective concentration of an oral drug.

45

What is the area under the curve?

The therapeutic range of a drug
When the drug's effectiveness starts, how long it lasts till its efficacy tapers off.

46

Define analgesia and anesthesia

Analgesia: Without pain
Anesthesia: Without sensation (+amnesia, hypnosis)

47

What is the ON switch to the sympathetic nervous system?

Adrenergics

48

Name two signs that an opioid is exerting its effect.

Euphoria
Sedation

49

When mixing Ketamine and diazepam (KetVal) at a 1:1 ratio and administering it, what part of anesthesia does this mixture provide?

Hypnosis for GA

50

What pharmacologic effects are potentiated (made stronger) by Atipamezole?

None.
(Atipamezole - tradename Antisedan - is a reversal agent for Medetomidine and Dexmedetomidine.)

51

Why is hydromorphone preferred over morphine?

Hydromorphone provides more analgesia with less vomiting.
(In order to reduce the chance of vomiting when administering an opioid, give Cerenia first)

52

ADVAIR is a human Rx for bronchial constriction that is supplied as an inhaled powder. What is its mode of administration?

Insufflation

53

What is the main effect of an ACE inhibitor, such as Benazepril?

Antagonize the production of Angiotension II

54

Saline laxatives, e.g. EpsomSalt, work via which mechanism?

An osmotic effect to cause transfer of water into bowel lumen

55

What inodilator is most likely used for cardiac insufficiency?

Pimobendin

56

Define neuroleptanalgesic.

Opioid + tranquilizer

57

The theoretical benefit of using a combo of drugs for GA rather than just one drug?

The combo working together (synergistically) to create a balanced anesthesia.

58

What is the mechanism of action for inhaled GA, such as isoflurane?

It is unknown what its mechanism of action is.

59

True or false:
Diethyl ether and nitrous oxide are flammable.

False.
Diethyl ether is flammable, however, nitrous oxide is not, therefore the statement is false.

60

Name an inorganic chemical that can be given by mouth to alkalinize pH of urine.

Potassium Citrate