review stuff, midterm 1 Flashcards Preview

econ > review stuff, midterm 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in review stuff, midterm 1 Deck (36):
1

The size of a firm's fixed cost of production does not affect the choice ________ but can alter the
choice ________.

. to shut down in the short run; to exit the industry.

2

opportunity cost

what you give up to get an item.

3

opportunity cost

what you give up to get an item.
-always compared to the next best, mutually exclusive alternative.
-don't include costs that would've still been incurred

Reflected in the slope of the PPF.
=units of y sacrificed for 1 or more unit of x

4

Positive Questions/ claims

Descriptive.
Asks or claims how the world functions.
Can be answered by examining facts.
how the world is

5

Normative questions/ claims

Prescriptive.
how/ what the world ought to be.
answer depends on value judgements.

6

PPF:
-Feasible
-Efficient
-Specialized

-Feasible: able to produce that combination with current resources and technology.

-Efficient:

-Specialized:

7

PPF:
-Feasible
-Efficient
-Specialized

-Feasible: able to produce that combination with current resources and technology. on or inside ppf

-Efficient: can't produce more of one good without producing less of another. on the ppf

-Specialized: producing only one good . on an axis

8

Specialization

International Trade
Caveats:
-Utility: Opp. cost is reduced if you enjoy the process
-Productivity: Opp. cost rises as you do more
-Security: comp. advantage may change

9

Demand will increase when:
population..
consumers..
substitute..
complement..
income..
future..

population increases.
consumers tastes change favorably.
substitutes increase in price. -goods that can replace one another
complement decrease in price. - goods that are more useful when used together.
income increases (for normal goods) inferior good exception.
buyers expect that the goods price will be higher in the future.

10

inferior good

when income falls, demand rises.
when income increases, buyers purchase less of this.

11

Supply increases when:
sellers..
production technology..
price of input..
sellers expect in future..
substitute in production..
complement in production..

more sellers enter the market.
production technology improves.
price of input decreases.
sellers expect the good's price to fall in future.
substitute in production decreases in price. - goods that compete for the same inputs.
complement in production increases in price. - goods that are produced simultaneously for the same inputs.

12

Shortage (or excess.. )

excess demand. at a given price, qty demand is greater than qty supplied.

13

Surplus (or exces..)

Excess supply.
at a given price, qty supplied is greater than qty demanded.

14

income elasticity of D

% change in Q / % change in income

15

cross-price elasticity of D

% change in Q of good 1 / % change in P of good 2

16

Demand elasticity
-Perfectly inelastic E=
-Perfectly elastic E=
-unit elastic E =

PI E = 0, vertical line
PE E = -infinity, horizontal line.
cant change price.
UE E = -1

17

Supply Elasticity
-Perfectly inelastic E=
-Perfectly elastic E=
-unit elastic E =

PI E = 0, vertical line
PE E = infinity, horizontal line.
cant change price.
UE E = 1

18

Inferior goods
normal goods
luxury goods

Inferior goods: E<0
normal goods: 01

19

Change in qty demanded vs change in demand

-Change in qty demanded: price change, (movement along)
-change in demand: shifts

20

Using elasticity to decide if complement, substitute, or unrelated.

complement:e = -#
substitute:e = +#
unrelated:e = 0

21

Good has more elastic demand when..

Close substitutes are available.
Good is a luxury.
Defined market is rather narrow.
Measured over a larger period of time.
A large fraction of income is spent on that good.

22

Good has more elastic supply when..

Inputs can be used in many goods.
Supply is measured over a long period of time.
market is narrowly defined.

23

Why tax something more inelastic?

less DWL

24

Marginal Cost

the value of everything sacrificed to produce one more unit of the good.
generally expect marginal costs to rise.

25

Total Welfare

CS + PS

26

Price ceiling

can't go above.
binding when below equilibrium
not binding when above.

27

Price ceiling immediate effects.

-Harms sellers (reduces PS)
-helps some buyers, harms other who can no longer buy. (could raise or lower CS)
-Lowers total welfare.

28

Price ceiling long term consequences.

-Persistent shortages - rationing coupons, waiting in line
-Black markets: charged higher than equilibrium price because of the risk to seller.

29

Price Floor

can't go below.
binding when above equilibrium
not binding when below.

30

Price floor immediate effects.

-Harms buyers (reduces CS)
-Helps some sellers, harms others who can no longer sell. (could raise of lower PS)
-Lowers total welfare

31

Price floor long term consequences

-Persistent surplus. must be disposed of so..
-"lower the price" giving backdoor discount
-convert it into unrelated good
-gov't commits to buy any leftovers
-gov't limits its production.

-Over investment in the industry. high profits for those who successfully sell

32

Tax Incidence

depends on elasticity.
-More elastic demand causes less incidence on the buyer.
-More elastic supply causes less incidence on the seller.

33

elasticity in Demand curve and tax burden

PI: paid entirely by the buyer
More inelastic: tax is paid more by buyers.
More elastic: tax is paid by sellers.

34

What does tax due to DWL

taxes reduce the amount sold, so it always creates some DWL.
more elastic demand or supply created greater DWL.

35

If you want more revenue tax the ______ good; if you want less DWL, tax the _____ good.

If you want more revenue tax the inelastic good; if you want less DWL, tax the inelastic good.

36

Economic Profit

Total Revenue - total Opp cost