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Flashcards in Review Topnatch 2 Deck (55):
0

Substrate concentration at which the reaction velocity is equal to 1/2 Vmax

Michaelis constant

1

Maximal velocity of an enzyme catalyzed reaction

V max

2

Rate independent of substrate concentration

Zero

3

Rate proportional to substrate concentration

First

4

Emzyme that catalyze the transfer of the amino groups of amino acids to glutamate

Amino transferase

5

Oxidatively deaminates glutamate to liberate free ammonia

Glutamate dehydrogenase

6

Deaminates glutamine to glutamate in the kidneys and intestines

Glutaminase

7

Compounds in which organisms excrete excess nitrogen

Ammonia
Uric acid
Urea

8

Amino acids which carry nitrogen fromperiphery to the liver

Glutamate
Glutamine
Alanine

9

Function of urea cycle

Produces urea from free ammonia

10

Location of urea cycle

Mitochondria and cytolpasm. Liver only

11

Reactnats of ureacycle

Ammonia
Aspartate
Carbon dioxide

12

End productof urea cycle

Urea

13

Rate limiting step of urea

Carbomyl phosphate synthase 1

14

3 compounds are the immediate donors of the atoms of urea

Free ammonia
Aspartate
CO2

15

Heme synthesis location

Mitochondria and cytoplasm, all tissues

16

Heme reactants

Glycine
Succynl Coa

17

End product of Heme

e-aminolevulinic acid

18

Rate limiting step of heme

Glycine+succynl CoA -> ALA

via ALA synthase

19

Enzyme for the conversion of heme to biliverdin

Heme oxygenase

20

Enzyme for the converion of biliverdin to bilirubin

Bilverdin reductase

21

Amino acids degradation and synthesis

Pyruvate
Alpha-ketoglutarate
Oxaloacetate

Alanine
Glutamate
Aspartate

22

Ketogenic amino acids

Lysine
Leucine

23

Glucogenic amino acids

Valine

24

Amino acid of ketogenic and glucogenic

Tyrosine

25

Pigment derived from porphin chelates with iron, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper or cobalt

Porphyrin

26

Hyaluronic acid, dermatin sulfate, heparin, keratansulfate

GAGs

27

Found in extracellular matrix of connective tissues

Proteoglycans

28

Component of most connective tissues in the body

Collagen

29

Found in the ground substance GAG+ protein Core

Proteoglycans

30

Found in connective tissues which has elastic properties

Elastin

31

Intermediate filament found in epithelial cells

Keratin

32

Defense of the body aainst foreign bodies harmful and nonharmful

Immunoglobulins

33

Thick filaments found in the muscles, involved in muscle contraction

Myosin

34

Thin filaments found in skeletal muscle.
Could be fibrous or globular

Actin

35

Protein folding disorder

Prion disease and alzheimers

36

Gluatmate is replaced by valine at position 6 of the B-globin chain. Causing hemoglobin that polymerizes inside the RBC.

Sickle-cell disease

37

Synhtesis of alpha chains is decreased or absent

Alpha thalasemia

38

Spectrin deficiency causes spherical RBC that are rapidly culled by the spleen

Hereditary sphercytosis

39

Blue sclera, multiple fractures, conductive hearing loss

Osteogenesis imperfecta

40

Berry aneurysms, hyperextensible skin, hypermobile joints, tnedency to bleed.

Ehlers-pauls syndrome

41

Loose teeth, sore spongy gums, poor wound healing, petechiae on skin and mucous membranes

Scurvy

42

Hereditary nephritis with sensorineural hearing loss

Alport syndrome

43

Aortic dilatation, dolichistenimelia, acromegaly

Marfan syndrome

44

Panacina emphysema and liver failure

a-1 antitrypsin deficiency

45

Hepatolenticular degeneration from accumulation of copper in tissues with low levels of ceruplasmin

Wilsons disease

46

Musty body odor, mental retardation, fair skin, eczema

Phenylketonurin

47

Urine turns black upon standing, associated with debilating arthralgias

Alkaptonuria

48

Decreased pigmentation that increase the risk for skin cancer

Albinsim

49

Atherosclerosis, lens subluxation, stroke, MI, osteoporosis, tall stature

Homocystinuria

50

Staghorn calculi due to inherited defect of renal tubular amino acid transporter

Cystinuria

51

Mental retardation from blocked degradation of branched amino acids

Maple syrup urine disease

52

Photosensitivity, chronic inflammation to overt blistering and shearing in exposed areas of the skin due to defects in heme synthesis

Porphyrias

53

Protein deprivation that is relatively greater than the reduction in total calories

Kwashiorkor

54

Caloric deprivation is relatively greater than the reduction in protein

Marasmus