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Flashcards in REVISION GUIDE: IMMS Deck (134)
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1

what is the structure of the nucleus?

- largest membrane-bound organelle
- double membrane = nuclear envelope
- gaps = nuclear pores
- contains genetic information in the form of chromatin. this condenses into chromosomes in cell division

2

what is the function of the nucleus?

- storage and transmission of genetic information
- the stored information synthesises the proteins
- determines the structure and function of the cell
- RNA moves out of nuclear pores

3

what is the structure of the golgi apparatus?

- parallel stacks of membrane
- located close to the nucleus
- can't be seen easily in most cells - can be seen in plasma cells as perinuclear hoff
- has 3 parts - cis, medial and trans golgi

4

where is the cis golgi and what is it's role?

- nuclear facing - receives from RER
- protein phosphorylation occurs here

5

where is the medial golgi and what is it's role?

- middle part
- modifies producers by adding sugars
- forms complex oligosaccharides by adding sugars to lipids and peptides

6

where is the trans-golgi and what is it's role?

faces away from the nucleus
proteolysis of peptides into active forms
sorting of molecules into vesicles which bud from the surface

7

what are the different parts of the golgi apparatus?

cis golgi
medial golgi
trans golgi

8

what is the role of the golgi apparatus?

processes and modifies macromolecules synthesised in the ER

9

what is the structure of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)?

- highly folded membrane sheets which are flat
- are rough due to ribosomes on the surface

10

what is the function of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)?

site of protein synthesis

11

what is the structure of ribosomes?

made up of 2 subunits
can be attached to the RER

12

what is the function of the ribosomes?

- act as a large catalyst
- translates genetic code into chains of amino acids
- deposits proteins into ER to undergo further modification

13

what is the rate of protein production in ribosomes?

3-5 amino acids per second in protein production

14

what is the role of mitochondria?

it is the site of energy production - produces ATP
site of oxidative phosphorylation

15

what is the function of the outer membrane of the mitochondria?

lipid synthesis and fatty acid metabolism

16

what is the function of the inner membrane of mitochondria?

respiratory chain (electron transport)

17

what is the function of the matrix of the mitochondria?

site of krebs cycle

18

what is the function of the intramembranous space in mitochondria?

nucleotide synthesis (ADP -> ATP)

19

what is the structure of mitochondria?

double membrane - inner is highly folded and outer is smooth
has matrix in centre
has own circular DNA - maternal

20

what are vesicles?

- very small spherical membrane bound organelles
- there are many types:
- cell surface derived
- golgi-derived
- ER-derived
- lysosomes
- peroxisomes

21

what is the function of vesicles?

transport and store material
exchange cell membrane between compartments

22

what are vesicles?

- chamber surrounded by a membrane
- membrane is semi-permeable and only lets certain molecules through

23

what are the functions of vesicles?

hold various solutions or material
material can have been created, stored or excreted
could have been phagocytosed

24

what is the structure and function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)?

highly folded, flattened membrane sheets
site of lipid synthesis
store synthesised proteins and proteases

25

what is cytoplasm?

the fluid that fills cells
includes the cytosol and filaments, proteins, ions and macromolecular structures as well as organelles
it is the site of glycolysis

26

what are the 3 components of cytoplasm?

- cytoskeleton - with associated motor proteins
- organelles and other multi proteins complexes
- cytoplasmic inclusions and dissolved solute

27

what is the role of cytoplasm?

it is the site of glycolysis

28

what is the nucleolus?

- in the nucleus
- there is no membrane
- the site of DNA transcription
- forms ribosomal RNA

29

what is the structure of the plasma membrane?

double layer of phospholipids
hydrophobic head and hydrophilic tail
contains protein receptors and channels
contains lipids (cholesterol)

30

what are the functions of the plasma membrane?

- controls passage of various molecules
- physical barrier
- selective permeability
- endo/exocytosis
- cell signalling