Flashcards in Revolution in 1918 Deck (17):
Short Term consequence
World War One
Long Term consequence
Social and Economic discontent
Defeat certain, Germany not defeated under General's rule, new government signed armistice. Create the Stab in the back myth, push blame protect themselves.
Result of WW1
Army Generals moved power from Kaiser to Reichstag before end, revolutionise political system protecting Army/reputations, greater negotiating power during armistice talks, conceding political revolution.
War financed by printing money/borrowing-inflation, coal/harvests used for army, starved/cold.
Mark Value between 1913-17
Lost 75% of its value.
Deaths from Starvation/Hypothermia
300,000 in 1918 alone
The people resented industrial owners making profits. Increase rich and poor gap, socialism more attractive. Increase in popularity increased pressure on current system to change to socialism,
Popularity of SPD
1912 - 110 seats in Reichstag largest party
Significance of SPD
Reform of the political system was key demand by the majority of the people.
31st Oct 1918 - Challenge authority, Army/Navy leaders lost control. Last battle retrieve dignity, sailors angry refused. Set up Worker/Soldier Councils, similar to Soviets in Russ Rev 1918, took control of military/civil matters of cities.
Prince Max of Baden
To prevent national rev from socialists he made political changes. Created a more democratic system, appointing the left-wing Freidrich Ebert as Chancellor and announced the abdication of the Kasier.
Effect of the left
Increased political pressure for change from left, caused Prince to revolutionise political system, a long term pressure/demand of population since the 1912 Election, known as the ‘Revolution from below’.
Long term - SPD/socialist ideology people to challenged authority, refuse orders continue rev cause setting up socialist rep, replicate Russia. Force Junkers to change autocracy - democracy.
Generals proposed altering political system with an armistice to protect reputation of the Army, for Germany would now lose the war, due to the army being under the control of the civilian government.
Created resentment/divide between the rich/poor of, rich making profit, poor starved. Resentment fuelled socialism increased pressure on the Second Reich to change political system.