(RM) Types of Naturalistic Observations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in (RM) Types of Naturalistic Observations Deck (14)
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1
Q

What are the different types if naturalistic observations?

A
Controlled Observations
Participant Observations
Non-Participant Observations
Covert Observations
Overt Observations
2
Q

What is a controlled observation?

A

Likely to be carried out in a lab

Conditions decided by researcher

3
Q

What are the + and - of controlled observations?

A

+ More control over variables - high internal validity
+ Easy to replicate
+ Avoids ethical problems (usually)
- Awareness of being observed - demand characteristics
- Low ecological validity - place of observation is artificial

4
Q

What is a participant observation?

A

Psychologist will actually join in the group they’re studying

5
Q

What are the + and - of participant observations?

A

+ High ecological validity
+ Rich in detail
- May be ethical issues
- Issues with reliability - observer bias
- Less reliable as psychologist can’t write observations in real time - have to wait, thus relying on memory

6
Q

What is a non-participant observation?

A

Researcher remains outside of the group whose behaviour they’re watching

7
Q

What are the + and - of non-participant observations?

A

+ No demand characteristics

- Results can be less ecologically valid - may change behaviour as they know the psychologist is present

8
Q

What is a covert observation?

A

Participant’s behaviour is watched and recorded without their knowledge or consent

9
Q

What are the + and - of a covert observation?

A

+ Reduced demand characteristics
+ High ecological validity
- Ethical issues

10
Q

What is an overt observation?

A

Participant’s behaviour is watched and recorded with their knowledge and consent

11
Q

What are the + and - of overt observations?

A

+ Reliable data
+ No ethical issues
- Increased demand characteristics

12
Q

What is event sampling? (Observations)

A

Observed every time an event occurs - decided before

13
Q

What is time sampling? (Observations)

A

Observed during a set amount of time - decided before

14
Q

What is point sampling? (Observations)

A

Observing and recording the behaviour which occurs at a series of given points in time - eg, meal time