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Flashcards in RNA Synthesis Deck (35):
1

Which types of RNA are used to support protein synthesis?

tRNA, rRNA

2

What type of RNA carries the DNA information for protein synthesis?

mRNA

3

Where is the majority of RNA synthesis found in mammalian cells?

Nucleus

4

3 general steps of transcription

Initiation, elongation, termination

5

What role does RNA polymerase play in transcription?

"start protein" Looks for promotor sites and binds to them

6

What direction does RNA synthesis proceed in?

5' to 3'

7

What does the promotor region consist of?

TATA and consensus sequences

8

What subunit is necessary for RNA polymerase to recognize the promotor?

sigma subunit

9

What replaces the sigma subunit in RNA polymerase on prokaryotes?

Nus A Protein

10

What type of DNA sequence causes termination?

Palindromes

11

Rho factor

Termination factor for prokaryotes. Binds to 5' end of messages and causes termination when it catches up to the stalled ribosome

12

RNA polymerase II

found in the nucleoplasm, does the majority of the transcription

13

RNA polymerase I

found in the nucleolus. Produces rRNA

14

RNA polymerase III

found in the nucleoplasm. Produces small RNA

15

What is the Deadhead mushroom's effect on the body that makes it so deadly?

Inhibits RNA polymerase II

16

What is the structure of a eukaryotic promotor?

TATA, CAAT (frequency of initiation), and enhancer/silencer elements (can be up or down stream)

17

What is mRNA's function in prokaryotes?

Polycistronic message, short-lived, immediately translated

18

What is mRNA's function in eukaryotes?

Monocistronic, introns and eons, mRNA must be processed, long-lived

19

What protects the 5' end of mRNA from being degraded?

Caps made of methylated guanine and methylated riboses

20

What are poly A tails' function?

Maintains message stability

21

What mRNAs do NOT contain poly a tails?

Those coding for histones

22

Introns

Only found in eukaryotes. Are removed during RNA processing.

23

RNA splicing precursors

GU on 5' end, AG on 3' end

24

What mediates the splicing of RNA?

Spliceosome

25

SNRNPs

individual parts that form a spliceosome

26

Alternative splicing

Exons can be spliced so they are expressed in different ways

27

Wobble position of Codon

the third position that has less specificity when coding for an amino acid

28

What are the two exceptions to the DNA codon language?

Mitochondria and chloroplasts

29

Transition mutation

Purine is replaced by purine, Pyrimidine is replaced by pyrimidine

30

Transversion mutation

Purine is changed to a pyrimidine, and vice versa

31

Silent mutation

Codon is changes, but the amino acid is not

32

Missense mutation

Inactive or partially active protein

33

Nonsense mutation

nonfunctional protein

34

Sickle cell anemia is caused by what mutation?

Missense mutation

35

Frameshift mutations

Insertions/deletions. only have a shift if 1 or 2 bases are affected