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Flashcards in Robotics in Urology Deck (19)
1

What is one of the major benefits of robotic surgery vs. laparoscopy?

- better at putting things back together and preserving non-target tissues.
- better reproducibility
*problem is expense

2

**** Where do the nerves for erections run in relation to the prostate? (TEST QUESTION)

- POSTERIOR and LATERAL to the prostate.
*must be mindful of these when doing a prostatectomy.

3

**** How is a SIMPLE prostatectomy performed? (TEST QUESTION)

- via OPEN ENUCLEATION= removal of only the inside obstructing adenoma of the prostate.

4

**** What is often seen with open enucleation of a simple prostatectomy?

- stones and adenoma.

5

**** What do BLADDER STONES imply? (TEST QUESTION)

- BPH and OBSTRUCTION

6

**** Where do the adrenal glands sit in relation to the kidneys? (TEST QUESTION)?

- cephalad to the kidneys.
*It has 60 vessels surrounding it!

7

**** What are the layers of the adrenal CORTEX and what do they produce? (TEST QUESTION)

- Zona Glomerulosa= aldosterone
- Zona Fasiculata= cortisol
- Zona Reticulata= androgens

8

**** What does the adrenal MEDULLA produce? (TEST QUESTION)

- epinephrine (80%)
- norepinephrine (19%)
- dopamine (1%)

9

**** What is Conn's syndrome? (TEST QUESTION)?

- an adenoma of the Zona Glomerulosa (outermost layer of the cortex)= ALDOSTERONOMA causing hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and HTN.
*AM serum aldosterone (aldosterone: renin ration greater than 30).

10

**** What is Pheochromocytoma? (TEST QUESTION)

- an adenoma of the MEDULLA (inner adrenal) secreting metanephrines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.

11

**** What is important to know about the LEFT renal VEIN? (TEST QUESTION)?

- it is LONGER than the right vein and passes OVER the AORTA and UNDER the SMA.
*almost always sits over (anterior to) the renal artery.

12

**** What is important to know about the RIGHT renal ARTERY? (TEST QUESTION)

- it is LONGER than the left artery and passes BEHIND the VENA CAVA.

13

**** How does the kidney develop? (TEST QUESTION)

- it rises out of the pelvis in the fetus and comes to rest under the adrenal gland.

14

What are the easiest kidney tumors to remove?

- left lower pole

15

What are the hardiest kidney tumors to remove?

- right central

16

**** What is a pT2 tumor and how is it treated?

- muscle invasion and treated with cystectomy

17

**** What is pTA tumor and how is it treated?

- superficial disease, TURBT

18

**** What is the main blood supply to the bladder?

- the bilateral internal and external iliac arteries; the inferior and superior vesical arteries from the aorta.

19

**** What happens to the ileal conduit in radical cystectomy?

- it is positioned in the right lower quadrant; the left ureter must be passed under the sigmoid.