Flashcards in Robotics in Urology Deck (19)
What is one of the major benefits of robotic surgery vs. laparoscopy?
- better at putting things back together and preserving non-target tissues.
- better reproducibility
*problem is expense
**** Where do the nerves for erections run in relation to the prostate? (TEST QUESTION)
- POSTERIOR and LATERAL to the prostate.
*must be mindful of these when doing a prostatectomy.
**** How is a SIMPLE prostatectomy performed? (TEST QUESTION)
- via OPEN ENUCLEATION= removal of only the inside obstructing adenoma of the prostate.
**** What is often seen with open enucleation of a simple prostatectomy?
- stones and adenoma.
**** What do BLADDER STONES imply? (TEST QUESTION)
- BPH and OBSTRUCTION
**** Where do the adrenal glands sit in relation to the kidneys? (TEST QUESTION)?
- cephalad to the kidneys.
*It has 60 vessels surrounding it!
**** What are the layers of the adrenal CORTEX and what do they produce? (TEST QUESTION)
- Zona Glomerulosa= aldosterone
- Zona Fasiculata= cortisol
- Zona Reticulata= androgens
**** What does the adrenal MEDULLA produce? (TEST QUESTION)
- epinephrine (80%)
- norepinephrine (19%)
- dopamine (1%)
**** What is Conn's syndrome? (TEST QUESTION)?
- an adenoma of the Zona Glomerulosa (outermost layer of the cortex)= ALDOSTERONOMA causing hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and HTN.
*AM serum aldosterone (aldosterone: renin ration greater than 30).
**** What is Pheochromocytoma? (TEST QUESTION)
- an adenoma of the MEDULLA (inner adrenal) secreting metanephrines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.
**** What is important to know about the LEFT renal VEIN? (TEST QUESTION)?
- it is LONGER than the right vein and passes OVER the AORTA and UNDER the SMA.
*almost always sits over (anterior to) the renal artery.
**** What is important to know about the RIGHT renal ARTERY? (TEST QUESTION)
- it is LONGER than the left artery and passes BEHIND the VENA CAVA.
**** How does the kidney develop? (TEST QUESTION)
- it rises out of the pelvis in the fetus and comes to rest under the adrenal gland.
What are the easiest kidney tumors to remove?
- left lower pole
What are the hardiest kidney tumors to remove?
- right central
**** What is a pT2 tumor and how is it treated?
- muscle invasion and treated with cystectomy
**** What is pTA tumor and how is it treated?
- superficial disease, TURBT
**** What is the main blood supply to the bladder?
- the bilateral internal and external iliac arteries; the inferior and superior vesical arteries from the aorta.