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Flashcards in Rock Vitamins Water Soluble Deck (43):
1

What are the 8 B complex vitamins?

Folate
Vitamin B6

Riboflavin
Vitamin B12

Thiamin
Niacin

Biotin
Pantothenic acid

2

What are the functions of the B-complex vitamins?

Folate = blood cell production, embryonic development
Vitamin B6 = blood cell production, skin/neural fxns

Riboflavin = blood cell production, mucosal/skin fxns
Vitamin B12 = blood cell production, neural fxns

Thiamin = neural + CV fxns
Niacin = skin, neural and GI functions

Biotin = hair growth, skin/neural functions
Pantothenic acid = neural functions

3

What it's the function of vitamin C?

Antioxidant

Collagen synthesis

4

What enzyme carries out the synthesis of DNA precursor?

THF = tetrahydrofolate

5

What enzymes carries out DNA methylation for one-carbon metabolism?

SAM

6

Deficiencies in which vitamins become more apparent in rapidly proliferating cells (bone marrow, intestine, skin, immune system)?

Folate

vitamin B6

Riboflavin

vitamin B12

7

What are sources of folate?

Green leafy vegetables

Fruits

Fortified grain products

8

What is folate involved in?

Methylation reactions (one carbon metabolism)

RNA/DNA synthesis

9

What are causes of folate deficiency?

Pregnancy

Chronic inflammatory diseases

Drugs with anti-folate activity = antieliptics

10

Is there luminal digestion of folate?

Peptide hydrolysis?

11

What carries out apical epithelial uptake of folate?

Proton-coupled folate transporter

12

What carries out basolateral epithelial release?

Multidrug resistance protein 3

13

Is there luminal digestion of vitamin B6?

Dephosphorylation

14

Is there apical and basolateral uptake/release of vitamin B6?

Yes

15

Is there luminal digestion of riboflavin?

No

16

What is behind apical epithelial uptake of riboflavin?

Riboflavin transporter 3

17

What is behind basolateral epithelial release of riboflavin?

Riboflavin transporter 1

18

Is there luminal digestion of vitamin B12?

No

19

What is responsible for apical epithelial uptake and basolateral epithelial release of vitamin B12?

Cubulin receptor

MDR protein 1

20

Is there luminal digestion of vitamin C?

No

21

What is responsible for apical epithelial uptake and basolateral epithelial release of vitamin C?

Na-dependent vitamin C transporter 1

Na-dependent vitamin C transporter 2

22

Is there luminal digestion of thiamin?

Dephosphorylation

23

What are symptoms of folate deficiency?

Megaloblastic anemia

Pregnancy complications (preeclampsia..)

Impaired fetal growth

24

Describe folate toxicity

Rare!

But may mask vitamin B12 deficiency

25

What DDIs are associated with folate?

Antifolate drugs = MTX

Anticonvulsants and sulfonamides

Alcohol

26

What are sources of vitamin B6?

Fortified cereals

Meat

Fish

Poultry

Eggs

Starchy veggies = potatoes

Fruits = 🍌

27

What are symptoms of B6 deficiency?

Neuropathy, seizures

Anemia

Dermatitis

Diarrhea, glossitis

28

Describe vitamin B6 toxicity

Rare

Can cause headache, sleepiness, tingling, neuropathy

29

What are symptoms of riboflavin deficiency?

Mucocutaneous lesions

Anemia

Corneal vascularization

Often associated with other micronutrient diseases

30

Toxicity associated with riboflavin?

No

31

Which water soluble vitamins have no toxicity associated with them?

Riboflavin

Vitamin B12

Thiamin

Biotin

Pantothenic acid

32

What is another name for vitamin B12?

Cobalamin

33

Where is vitamin B12 synthesized?

Only in bacteria and archaea

34

What are symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency?

Megaloblastic anemia (like folate deficiency)

Fatigue, SOB

Neurological Sx: numbness, cognitive changes - caused by nerve degeneration

35

What are symptoms of vitamin C deficiency ?

Generalized fatigue

Bleeding and inflammation - gum, skin, joints, peritoneum

Bone weaknesses and fractures

Impaired wound healing

Scurvy

36

Describe vitamin C toxicity

Nausea

Diarrhea

Excess iron absorption

37

What are causes of thiamin deficiency?

Alcolism

38

What are symptoms of thiamin deficiency?

Fatigue, weakness

Neurological = memory loss, pain, neuropathy

Neurological + CV = tachycardia, HF

39

What is a name for niacin deficiency?

Pellagra

"Rough skin"

40

What are symptoms of niacin deficiency?

4 Ds:

Dermatitis

Diarrhea

Dementia

Death

41

Describe niacin toxicity

High doses = AEs =

Skin flushing, itching, tingling

GI upset

Liver damage

42

What are symptoms of biotin deficiency?

Hair loss

Skin rash

Convulsions

Growth delay

43

What are symptoms of pantothenic acid?

Deficiency = virtually NONEXISTENT