Rocky Shore Flashcards Preview

Gd 10 - Life Sciences 2017 > Rocky Shore > Flashcards

Flashcards in Rocky Shore Deck (31):
0

Fate of the incoming sunlight over the sea

Most reflected or absorbed by atmosphere

Most hitting sea is used to heat water and promote evaporation

Only about 2% used by algae for photosynthesis

1

Important abiotic factors on the rocky shore

  • Sunlight
  • Wave action
  • Rock type
  • Tides
  • Salinity
  • Temperature
  • pH

2

Advantages of wave action

Mixing of:

  • Oxygen
  • Food
  • Nutrients

3

Disadvantages of wave action

  • Abrasion
  • Isolation and dehydration of organisms

4

Adaptations to deal with wave action

Behavioral:

  • sheltering in crevices
  • living high up or low down shore

Structural:

  • flattened or streamlined shape e.g. seaweeds, mussels
  • cementing/byssus threads to attach to rocks e.g. barnacles and mussels
  • ability to roll in waves e.g. periwinkles

5

Some extreme factors in a rock pool

Rapid changes in:

  • Temperature
  • Salinity
  • pH

6

Frequency of tides

  • Roughly twice a day the tides rise and fall
  • Every 14 days there are spring tides

7

Spring tides

  • When the sun and moon align to pull together on the water
  • every 14 days, full and new moons
  • highest and lowest tide levels at these times

8

Cause of tides

  • Gravitational pull on large water bodies by sun and moon
  • Water bulges on both sides of the earth in the direction that the gravitational pull occurs

9

Adaptations to prevent drying out

Behavioural: 

  • sheltering in pools
  • hiding in moist crevices or under seaweed

Body design:

  • Small surface area to volume
  • coverings to trap water e.g. operculum in winkles

Secretions:

  • mucous to keep organism moist

10

Producers on the rocky shore

Red, green and brown algae

11

  • Sea lettuce
  • (Ulva sp.)
  • Green algae - a producer
  • Common in Balanoid Zone

12

  • Limpets
  • (Pattella sp.)
  • grazers of algae
  • Larger limpets an indicator species of Cochlear Zone

13

  • Sea urchins
  • grazers of algae
  • Common in rock pools and in sublittoral zones

14

  • Winkles or periwinkles
  • Grazers of algae
  • Larger ones found lower down shore, small ones called Littorina indicator species in the Littorina Zone

15

  • Mussels
  • Filter feeders
  • Found in Lower Balanoid zone and 

16

  • Sea Anenome
  • Predator - catches small prey with tentacles and stings
  • Common in rockpools and sheltered rocks and crevices in Cochlear Zone

17

  • Hermit Crab
  • Scavenger
  • Found in rock pools, uses discarded shells for shelter

18

  • Shore Crab
  • Scavenger/occasional predator
  • Found in rockpools

19

  • Phytoplankton
  • Tiny, microscopic producers
  • Found floating in top surface layers of the sea

20

  • Zooplankton
  • Tiny, microscopic animals
  • Found floating in top surface layers of the sea

21

  • Barnacles
  • Filter feeders
  • Indicator species of Balanoid Zone

22

  • Klipfish
  • Omnivor consumer
  • Rockpools and Sublittoral Zone

23

  • Black backed seagull
  • Top predator / scavenger

24

Tolerance

Ability to survive specific conditions according to specific adaptations

25

Zones on the rocky shore

  • Supralittoral Zone - splashed only occasionally
  • Littorina Zone - covered only spring high
  • Upper Balanoid Zone - covered neap high
  • Lower Balanoid Zone - exposed neap low
  • Cochlear Zone - exposed only spring low
  • Sublittoral Zone - never exposed

 

26

Indicator organisms of Littorina Zone

  • small black winkles (Littorina sp.)
  • Purple Laver (Porphyra sp.)

27

Indicator organisms of the Balanoid Zones

Barnacles (Tetraclita sp.)

28

Indicator organisms of the Cochlear Zone

Cone and pear limpets (Patella sp.)

29

Indicator organisms of Sublittoral Zone

Kelp (Ecklonia sp.)

Red Bait (Pyura sp.)

30

Purple Laver