Romanian Orphan Studies - Effects of Institutionalisation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Romanian Orphan Studies - Effects of Institutionalisation Deck (17):

Define privation, in relation to attachment

Where a child has never had an attachment to its mother / caregiver


Define deprivation, in relation to attachment

Where an attachment was once formed but is now broken


Name the psychologist that looked into Romanian orphanages

Rutter et al.


What type of study was Rutter's study?

Longitudinal study


Describe the sample used in Rutter's study

111 Romanian orphans who were adopted by British families
52 UK adoptees


Briefly describe the procedure of Rutter et al.

Romanian orphans were adopted before 6 months old and after 6 months
Each child was assessed at ages 4, 6, 11
Compared with group of UK adoptees


What were the results from Rutter et al. study?

Those who were younger than 6 months when they were adopted had a similar level of emotional development as the UK children adopted at the same age.

Romanian orphans who were older than 6 months showed signs of insecure attachments and social problems, unlike the UK children.


What did Rutter conclude from this study?

The effects of privation can be reversed if an attachment starts to form before the age of 6 months.


List some long-term effects of institutionalisation

Affectionless psychopathy
Impaired social and intellectual development
Physical underdevelopment (smaller, weighed less)
Reduced intelligence
Less empathy


What was the aim of Rutter et al. Romanian Orphan study?

To investigate the long-term effects of institutionalisation and privation


How was data collected in the Romanian Orphan study?

Through interviews


What is a strength of research into the effects of institutionalisation?

We can apply our knowledge to improve care in orphanages and reduce the amount of orphans.


What is a strength of using a longitudinal study?

Can accurately conclude effects of institutionalisation. Measures the effects (including LT effects), giving the study high internal validity


What is a limitation of a longitudinal study?

High drop-out rates


What is a research limitation of Rutter et al.?

Subjective data collection e.g. interviews, affected by social desirability / bias

Extraneous variables e.g. quality of individual care, cannot be controlled. Cannot establish a cause and effect relationship.


What is a weakness of Rutter et al.?

OPA - some research suggests children are unable to recover from privation/deprivation, however Rutter disagrees. E.g. some babies may be naturally happier and therefore draw more attention from carers than other babies.


What is an application of Rutter et al.?

Early adoption in the first few weeks is ideal because the child will suffer fewer problems.
(Rutter found that those adopted later, had the most severe problems).