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Flashcards in Root Words for SAT Vocab Deck (201):
1

  • breaking the word into units of meaning
  • recognizing units of meaning
  • connecting to other known words

example:

philology

Here is the format we will use for this deck:

  • break word into pieces

philo / logy

  • Identify root prefixes and suffixes that affect meaning to decode the word's definition

philo = love, ology = study of

the love of study (usually of language or literature)

  • other words you might be able to connect to the root

Anglophile, pedophile, biology

2

acuity

acu / ity

sharp / (noun)

sharpness of vision, hearing or mentality

acute, acumen

3

abstract

abs / tract

away / drawn

apart from concrete existence

tractor, tractable, attractive, abstraction, intractable

4

acrimony

acri / mony

bitter / (noun)

bitterness; resentfulness

acrid

5

acronym

acro / nym

high / name

name taken from the first letter of a group of words describing it (NASA, radar (originally), NARAL)

acrophobia, acrobatic, synonym, anonymous

6

deceptive

de / cept / ive

away / take / (adjective)

take (someone) away from truth

quality that misleads someone from what is true

interception, inception, perceive, concept

7

progeny

pro / gen / y

forward / birth or race - people /(noun)

those born from you

your children

generation, congenital, genus

8

circumspect

 circum / spect

around / see

careful, seeing all around, cautious

speculative, spectators, spectacles, perspicacity

circumlocution, circumnavigate

9

indict

 in / dict

say / word

to charge with a crime

indictment, dictionary, dictate, dictator, edict

10

supercilious

super / cil / ious

above

acts superior

superfluous, superlative, conciliation

11

amorous

amor / ous

love / (adjective)

loving, erotic

amiable, amicable

12

ambivalent

ambi / valent

both / strength

recognizing validity on both sides of something

ambidextrous, ambition, ambiance, ambience, prevalent, covalent, valor, valid

13

attenuate

at / tenu / ate

really / thin out / (verb)

thin out until weakened

tenuous, tenacious,tension

14

inductile

in / duct /ile

not / lead, teach / (adjective)

inflexible, not easily led

induce, deduce, deduct, aqueduct

15

amicable

amic / able

friend / able to be

able to be friends, friendly

amigo, amity

16

subvert

 

sub / vert

under / turn

 to undermine

convert, revert, divert, invert

17

amphibious

amphi / bi / ous

two / life / (adjective)

living in two places (water, land)

amphitheater

18

atypical

a / typ / ical

not / type, kind / (adjective)

unusual

stereotype, archetype, prototype

19

loquacious

  loqu / acious

speech, word / (adjective)

talkative, wordy

neologism, analogy

20

androgenous

andro / gen / ous

male / kind, type / (adjective)

having characteristics that confuse sexual identity

android

This word probably first described women who appeared manly, but now refers to fashions, or behaviors that blur sexual identity.

21

assent

as / sent

to / feel, sense

agree in feeling

sensation, dissent, sensitive, sensual, sensuous

22

biannual

bi / annu / al

two / years / (adjective)

every two years

biathlete, bisexual, bicentenial

annual, anniversary

23

ignominy

ig / nom / iny

not / name / (noun)

disgrace, bad reputation

nominate, synonym, noun, pronounce

24

antebellum

ante / bellum

before / war

period before a war

bellicose, belligerent

25

recluse

 

 re / cluse

(intensifier) / shut

person who lives shut off from society

reclusive, cloister, closet

26

anthropomorphic

anthro / po / morph / ic

human / change / (adjective)

human characteristics for non-human things

anthropology, metamorphic

27

vociferous

voci / fer / ous

call (out) / carry / adjective

voice carrying, loud

vocal, advocate, vocabulary, ferry

28

malefactor

 male / fac / tor

bad / do / person

criminal, evil doer

maladroit, maladjusted, malevolent, malnourished

29

aquifer

aqui / fer

water / carry

something that moves water

aquarium, aquatic

ferry, vociferous

30

refraction

 

 re / frac / tion

again / break / (noun)

turning or bending of light

fragment, fracture, fractals, fragile

31

digress

 

di / gress

two / move

move off topic to another point

progress, regress

dialogue, diametric

32

archetype

arche / type

bow / type

best example

archaeology, architecture, overarching

typical, typecast, typify, prototype

33

aristocracy

aristo / cracy

best / government, rule

hereditary ruling class; nobility

antiaristocratic, varistor

34

inconsequential

in / con /sequen / tial

not / with / follow / (adjective)

nothing follows, unimportant

sequence, non-sequitor

35

arthropod

 

arthro / pod

joint / leg

animal with segmented joints

arthritis, arthroscopy

cephalopod, gastropod

36

audible

aud / ible

 hear, listen / able

able to be heard

auditory, auditorium, audiovisual

37

 querulous

quer / ulous

ask / (adjective)

whining, complaining

query, inquire, inquisition, quiz

38

augment

aug / ment

to increase (verb)

to supplement

augur, transmogrify, august

39

sacrosanct

sacro / sanct

sacred / holy

 to hold something in high, godly esteem

desecrate, sacreligious, sacerdotal, sanctimonious, sanctify

40

autonomy

auto / nomy

self / name

the ability to do things by oneself

automatic, autocracy, automobile

nominative, anonymous, nominal, nominate

41

bellicose

belli /cose

war / like

determination to create war or conflict

antebellum, belligerent

42

antipathy

anti / pathy

against / feeling

hatred, deep dislike

sympathy, empathy

43

benign

ben / ign

good / (adjective)

having a positive impact

benefactor, benificence, benefit

44

circumscribe

circum / scribe

around / write

to draw a line of limitation

circumlocutory, circumnavigate proscribe, description

45

disburse

dis / burse

not / purse

to give out funds

bursar, bursitis

46

condemn

con / demn

with / damnation

to sentence someone for a crime or an injunction

indemnify, condemnation

 

47

demented

de / ment / ed

un / mind / ed

out of your mind

mentality, temperamental

48

decimate

deci / mate

tenth / (verb)

to reduce to a tenth of the size, destroy

decibel, December, decade, decalogue

49

demagogue

dema / gogue

people / leader

ruler who appeals to popular interests

democratic, demography

pedagogue

50

condense

con / dense

with / thick

thicken

condensation, density

51

dexterity

dexter / ity

skillful / (noun)

skillfulness

dexterous, ambidextrous

 

52

edict

e / dict

/ word

declare, decree

dictator, diction, dictation

dictionary, diction

53

docile

doc / ile

teach / (adjective)

teachable, tractable

docility,

 

54

domicile

domic / ile

house / (noun)

house, home

domestic

55

dormant

dorm / ant

sleep / (adjective)

sleeping, hiberating, inactive

dormitory, dorm

56

dubious

dub / ious

doubt / (adjective)

doubtful, suspect

indubitably

57

obdurate

obdur / ate

harden / (adjective)

hard-hearted, intractable, unyieldingly stubborn

obduracy, endure, durable

58

subjugate

sub / jug / ate

under / yoke / (verb)

force someone under control, enslave

subterfuge, conjugal

59

juncture

junct / ure

join / (noun)

point in time, place where situation meets decision

junction, conjunction, adjunct

60

jurisdiction

juris / dict / ion

law / speech / (noun)

power or authority of law, physical limits of the reach of legal authority

jury, dictionary, dictate

61

florid

flor / id

flower / (adjective)

relating to flowers

floral, florist

62

equivocal

equi / vocal

equal / speak

can be defended on either side of argument, debatable

equinimical, equidistant, vocabulary,advocate

63

aberration

ab / err / ation

from / mistake / (noun)

coming from error, not intended, not normal

err, errant, erroneous, error

64

bibliophile

biblio / phile

book / love

a lover of books / book collector

bibliography, Francophile, Anglophile

65

telekinesis

tele / kine / sis

across / motion / (noun)

motion cause by the power of the mind

television, telephone, kinetic

66

euphoric

eu / phor / ic

well, good / bear / (adjective)

a quality of intense happiness

euphonium, euphenism, anaphoric

67

fatuous

fatu / ous

fool / (adjective)

silly, foolish

infatuate

68

cardiovascular

cardio / vascul / ar

heart / veins / (adjective)

having to do with arteries and heart

cardiogram, vasculitis

69

gestate

gest / ate

carry, bear / (verb)

to grow in the womb

gestation, gestative, gestational

70

relapse

re / lapse

again, / fall back

fall back into a former state, to regress after a period of improvement

lapse

71

latitude

lati / tude

wide / (noun)

wideness, distant across, freedom from restrictions

latitudinal

72

fallacy

fallac / y

trick / (noun)

a wrong idea, misconception

fallacious

73

felicity

felic / ity

happy / (noun)

happiness

felicitous

felicitous

74

elaborate

e / labor / ate

out / work / (verb)

to work (something) out, go into detail

laborious, laboratory, labor

75

laxity

lax / ity

loose / (noun)

lacking firmness, strictness, slack

relax, relaxation

76

regress

re / gress

back / walk

to go backward, to get worse

digress, progress

77

deliberate

de / liber / ate

from / scale / (verb)

to weigh (consider) carefully

liberality

78

grandiose

grand / iose

large / (adjective)

characterized by large scope or intent; pretending large scope or importance

grandeloquence, grandeur, grand

79

immutable

im / mut / able

not / change / able to

not capable of changing

mutation, mutant

80

dermal

derm / al

skin / (adjective)

having to do with skin

dermatology, dermatitis

81

narcosis

narco / sis

numb / (noun)

a state of stupor; drugged or numbed

narcotic

82

ingratitude

in / grati / tude

not / thank / (noun)

the quality of absence of proper thankfulness

gratuity, gratify, congratulations

83

renaissance

renaissance

84

nascent

nasc / ent

birth / (adjective)

coming into existence

Renaissance

85

neurologist

neuro / log / ist

nerve / study of / (noun) person

someone who studies the nervous system

neurochemistry, neurobiology, neurosis

86

didactic

didact / ic

teach / (adjective)

apt at teaching, in a teaching manner

didactical

87

delineate

de / line / ate

of, from / line / (verb)

to show differences, create categories or limits

delineation, lineage, linear

88

annihilation

an / nihil / ation

to / nothing / (noun)

destroy, bring to nothing

nihilism

89

fidelity

fidel / ity

faith / (noun)

faithfulness

infidelity, infidel

90

noctambulist

noct / ambul / ist

night / walk / (noun) person

someone who walks at night

nocturnal, ambulation, ambulance

 

91

inflection

in / flec / tion

in, within / bend, flex / (noun)

modulation of voice for emphasis

flexible, deflect, reflection

92

guttural

guttur / al

throat / (adjective)

throaty; like a growl or rumbling of the throat

gullet, gutturalness

93

intermediary

inter / medi / ary

within / middle / (noun)

middleman, a go-between, someone who works between two parties

medium, mediate, intercept, inaction

94

elongate

e / long / ate

out of / long / (verb)

lengthen, stretch

elongation, longitude

95

autonomous

auto / nom / ous

self / law / (adjective)

independent, self-government

automatic, automobile

 

96

profuse

pro / fuse

for, forth / pour

to pour forth

profusion, refuse, defuse

97

relinquish

re / linqu / ish

again / leave / (verb)

give up, let go of possession

delinquent

98

mellifluous

melli / flu / ous

honey / flowing / (adjective)

sweetly flowing

mellific

99

idiosyncratic

idio / syn / crat / ic

self / with, together / power / (adjective)

highly individualized, specific to a single person

idiom, idiomatic, synthesize, democrat

100

loquacious

loqua / cious

speak / (adjective)

talkative

circumlocutions, eloquent, grandeloquent

101

inhibit

in / hibit

in / grab

restrain, suppress, hold back

prohibit, exhibition

102

merchantile

merchantile

merch / ant / ile

trade / (person) / (adjective)

merchandizing

103

notoriety

notor / iety

known / (noun)

fame, quality of being known

noteworthy, notorious

104

incur

in / cur

in / run

 

105

obliterate

ob / liter / ate

 against / letter / (verb)

remove all evidence of; wipe from existence or memory

literal, literary, literature

106

militant

milit / ant

soldier / (abjective)

aggressive and committed as to a cause

military, militia

107

genocide

gen / o / cide

race / killing

killing a race of people

generation, genre, pesticide, homocide

 

108

obnoxious

ob / nox / ious

toward / injury, hurt / (adjective)

very annoying

noxious

109

influx

in / flux

in / flow

mass arrival or incoming

fluctuate, flux

110

inimical

inimic / al

enemy / (adjective)

hostile

inimicable, inimicalness

111

elucidate

e / lucid / ate

out / light / (verb)

shed light on, clarify, make understandable,

lucid, lucent, luculent

112

annul

an / nul

to / nothing

render void, bring to nothing, cancel, invalidate

nullify, nil

113

prominence

pro / min / ence

 

114

denounce

denounce

de / nounce

against / message

renounce, anunciate, pronounciation

115

illuminate

il / lumin / ate

in / light / (verb)

to cast light upon something, bring to light

luminary

116

monolith

mono / lith

one / stone

a large stone like an obelisk (suggesting rigid uniformity)

monolithic, lithosphere, monotony

117

misogyny

miso / gyn / y

hate / woman / (noun)

antipathy toward women

gynocology, misogamy, misologist

118

polygamy

poly / gam / y

many / marriage / (noun)

the practice of taking multiples wives (or husbands)

polygon, misogamy, bigamy

119

nuptial

nupt / ial

marry / (adjective)

having to do with a wedding or marriage

prenuptial, postnuptial, connubial, nubile

120

ocular

ocul / ar

eye / (adjective)

having to do with eyes

binocular, ocularcentric

121

agoraphobia

agora / phobia

marketplace / fear

fear of open spaces, crowds

cleptophobia, arachnophobia, Agorism

122

heredity

hered / ity

heir / (noun)

the passing of traits from the parents to the children

inheritance, hereditary

123

mollify, emollient

mollify, emollient

124

emollient

e / moll / ient

from / soft / (noun)

softening or soothing

mollify, mollifying

125

neophyte

neo / phyte

new / (noun)

someone new at something

neoconservative, neocortical

126

remnant

rem / nant

remain / (noun)

something that remains

remainders

127

odometer

odo / meter

road, way, journey / measure

a device that measures distance travelled

odometric, electrode

128

adhere

ad / here

to / stick

to stay attached, cleave to, cling to

adherent

129

monotonous

mono / ton / ous

one / tone / (adjective)

boring, lacking in variety and interests

monologue, atonal

130

infringe

in / fringe

in / to break

to encroach upon the rights of others

fringe, infringement

131

monologue

mono / logue

one / speak

one person talking

monotone, dialogue

132

anthropomorphic

anthropo / morph / ic

people / from / (adjective)

attributing human characteristics to animals or non-human things

misanthrope, anthropology, metamorphic, morphine

 

133

placate

plac / ate

sooth, calm / (verb)

to calm, appease

placid, unplacated

134

mania

mania

crazy

a state of crazy

pyromaniac, manic

135

oligarchy

olig / arch / y

few / to rule, command / (noun)

government by a few powerful people

patriarchy, matriarchy, monarchy, oligopoly

136

polemic

polemic

137

holistic

hol / ist / ic

whole / (noun) / (adjective)

a quality of considering something as a whole instead of in parts

 

138

inhale

in / hale

in / breathe

taking

139

perplex

per / plex

through / weave, braid

confuse with intricacy

complex, perplexity

 

140

manuscript

manu / script

hand / writing

something written by hand

manipulate, manicure, postscript, subscription 

141

replicate

re / plic / ate

again, back / fold / (verb)

duplicate, copy

complicate

 

142

plurality

plurality

143

maritime

mari / time

sea, ocean / (adjective)

having to do with the seas or oceans

marine, submarine

144

plutocracy

pluto / cracy

wealth / government

a government of the rich

democracy, plutocratic

 

145

germinate

germin / ate

sprout / (verb)

to begin to grow

germs

146

podium

pod / ium

foot / (noun)

a raised are behind a lecturn upon which a speaker stands

arthropod, gastropod, podiatrist

147

matriarch

matri / arch

mother / ruler

woman in charge

matron, matricide, maternity

148

postpone

post / pone

after / place

to put off until a later time

posthaste, component

149

preponderance

pre / ponder / ance

more / weigh or consider / (noun)

dominant in influence, power or importance

pound, compound, ponderable

150

opaque

opaque

shady, shaded, dark

hard to see, murky, cloudy, hard to identify

opacity

151

posthaste

posthaste

after / speed

as quickly as possible

postgraduate, postwar

152

pallor

pall / or

pale / (noun)

paleness, white in complexion

pall, pallid, appalled

153

apprehend

apprehend

154

oration

ora / tion

mouth / (noun)

speech

oral, oratio, oratory

155

primary

prim / ary

first / (adjective)

of first importance, level, or rank

primitive, primate

156

ornate

ornate

orn / (adjective)

furnish, embellish

adornment, ornament

157

patently

pat / ent / ly

to lay open / (adjective) / (adverb)

in a manner that is unmistakeable clear and open

pat (answers), patent, impatent

 

158

orthodoxy

ortho / dox / y

correct / belief / (noun)

correctness of a belief

orthodontist, orthopedist, doxology

159

patriarch

patri / arch

father / ruler

men are in charge

paternity, patricide, patriot

160

pacific

pac / ific

peace / (adjective)

having a soothing quality

pacify, pacifier

161

triptych

tri / ptych

three / folds

something composed or presented in three parts

triangle, ptychodera

162

pedestrian

ped / estri / an

foot / man / (adjective)

someone who goes on foot, a quality of lower class

pedestal, pediatry, equestrian

 

163

prioritize

prior / itize

first / (verb)

putting important things first

prior, priority, a priori

164

minuscule

minus / cule

tiny / (adjective)

very small

miniskirt

165

expending

ex / pend / ing

166

ominous

omin / ous

omen / (adjective)

the quality of expecting or predicting misfortune

omen

 

167

impunity

im / pun / ity

not / punish / (noun)

being above punishment

punishable

 

168

iteration

iter / tion

again / (noun)

a repetition, something said again

reiterate

169

expurgate

ex / purg / ate

out of / wash, cleanse / (verb)

wipe out completely, purge

purgatory, purge

170

hydrophile

hydro / phile

water / lover

someone who loves water or swimming

hydrant, bibliophile

171

irascible

iras / cible

anger / able

easy to get angered

irate, irateness

172

malfeasance

mal / feas / ance

bad / doing / (noun)

wrongdoing

feasible, malnutrition

173

malodorous

mal / odor / ous

bad / smell / (adjective)

having a bad smell

maladjusted, odiferous

 

 

174

malicious

malic / ious

evil / (adjective)

a quality of evil

malign, malcontent

malicity

 

175

malignancy

mal / ign / ancy

bad / knowledge / (adjective)

evil in nature

maladroit, ignorant

176

fugitive

fugi / tive

flee / (noun)

someone who flees the law

refugee, refuge

177

 pessimal

pessim / al

worst / (adjective)

a qaulity of negativity

 

pessimist

178

computation

comput / ation

determine mathematically / (noun)

 a calculation

computer, computable

 

179

pugnacious

pugna / cious

to fight  /  (adjective)

the quality of combativeness

pugilist, repugnant

180

nominal

nom / inal

name / adjective

in name only

 

nominate, denomination, nominee

181

demented

de / ment / ed

from / mind / (adjective)

out of one's mind

dementia, mental

182

obfuscate

ob / fusc / ate

 to, toward / dark / (verb)

darken, make obscure, confuse, bewilder

obfuscatory

 

183

placid

plac / id

sooth / (adjective)

calm

implacable, placebo

184

ferocious

feroc / ity

fierce / (noun)

fierceness

feral, ferocious

 

185

pungent

pung / ent

sting / (adjective)

stinging sensation in the nose, bad smelling

piquant, poignant, pungently

186

quadruple

quadru / ple

four / (verb)

make four times larger

quadrilateral

187

trajectory

tra / ject / ory

across / throw / (noun)

the path of an object as it moves through space

transgress, translate, interjection, projectile

188

inquisitive

in / quis / itive

in / quiz / (adjective)

inquiring, curious, in the habit of asking questions

quiz, inquire, question

189

jocular

joc / ular

joke / (adjective)

joking, playful

jocund, jocularity

190

posterior

poster / ior

after, behind / (noun)

toward the back, following after

posterity, posthaste, postscript

191

privation

priva / tion

deprive / (noun)

to lack something necessary for existence

deprivation, private

192

prototype

proto / type

original, early stage / form, model, type

the first design of something

protoplasm, typical

193

probity

prob / ity

honest / (noun)

forthrightness, reputation for honesty and integrity

probate, probation

194

erasure

e / ras / ure

away / scrape / (noun)

deletion, wiping out completely, obliteration

erase

195

abrasion

ab / ras / ion

off / to scrape / (noun)

an injury caused by rubbing or scraping

eraser, abrade

 

196

rejuvenate

re / juven / ate

again / young / (verb)

renew, bring youthful feeling to

juvenile

197

kleptomania

klepto / mania

stealing / crazy

a condition of complusive stealing

kleptophile, pyromaniac

198

ligature

liga / ture

to tie or bind / (noun)

something tied or bound

ligament

 

199

gravitas

gravitas

weight, heaviness

weight, heaviness, seriousness, reputation for importance

grave, gravity

200

plenary

plen / ary

full / (adjective)

full or complete in every regard, fully attended

plenty

 

201

affiliation

af / fili / ation

to / son / (noun)

close connection

filial