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PT3 ID 1 (HIV) > RTIs > Flashcards

Flashcards in RTIs Deck (52):
1

normal respiratory flora

strep pneumoniae
strep pyogenes
strep viridans
staph aureus
moraxella catarrhalis
haemophilus
neisseria
lactobacilla

2

signs/symptoms of pertussis

-Stage 1 = 1-2 wks, runny nose, low grade fever, mild cough
-Stage 2 = 2-10 wks, fits of rapid coughing with whoop on inspiration, vomiting, exhaustion
-Stage 3 = 2-3 wks, coughing lessens, susceptible to other rtis

3

pertussis diagnosis

-physical exam
-nasopharyngeal sample tested with PCR and cultures

4

main antibiotic for pertussis

macrolides

5

alternative treatment for pertussis

tmp/smz

6

group A strep pharyngitis presentation

-sudden sore throat
-age 5-15
-fever, headache
-N/V
-tonsillar inflammation

7

viral pharyngitis

-conjunctivitis
-coryza (inflammation, runny nose)
-cough
-diarrhea
-hoarsenes

8

strep throat workup process

-swab throat
-test using rapid antigen detection test (RADT)
-if negative do culture in kids

9

treatment for strep pharyngitis

-penicillin vk x 10d
-amoxicillin x 10d
-cephalexin x 10d
-z-pak if penicillin allergy

10

rhinosinusitis presentation

inflammation of nasal mucosal lining for at least 4 weeks
one of the following:
-severe symptoms lasting more than 3-4 days
-persistent symptoms lasting over 10 days
-worsening symptoms after viral URI

11

major criteria for bacterial sinusitis diagnosis

-purulent nasal discharge
-nasal congestion
-facial congestion
-fever

12

minor criteria for bacterial sinusitis diagnosis

-ear pain
-dental pain
-cough
-fever

13

bacterial sinusitis treatment

amoxicillin/clavulanate
10-14 days in children
5-7 in adults

14

alternatives for sinusitis treatment

doxycycline
quinolones
ceftriaxone

15

if first treatment fails in sinusitis

children: double dose of augmentin
adults: augmentin XR

16

adjunctive therapies to do in bacterial sinusitis

hydrate
analgesics
antipyretics
irrigation

17

therapies to NOT do in bacterial sinusitis

decongestants
antihistamines

18

sinusitis cultures obtained from

middle meatus endoscopically

19

community acquired pneumonia bugs

s. pneumoniae (75%)
legionella pneumoniae
chalmydia pneumonia
mycoplasma pneumoniae

20

factors in pneumonia development

-decreased clearance of airway debris
-depressed macrophage activity
-enhancement of aspiration

21

presenting signs of pneumonia

-fever over 100.4
-over 20 breaths/min
-tachycardia
-bradycardia if legionella
-crackles w/ inspiration
-infiltrates in chest x-ray`

22

symptoms of pneumonia

fever
chills
chest pain
cough
sputum

23

WBC components

-neutrophils
-lymphocytes (infection fighters)
-monocytes (lil macrophages)
-eosinophils (hypersensitivity)

24

signs of atypical pneumonia

nausea, vomiting, confusion

25

atypical bacteria in pneumonia

mycoplasma
legionella
chlamydia

26

pneumonia workup

-gram stain from sputum
-gram stain and culture from blood
-urine test for legionella
-chest xray for inflatrates

27

empiric pneumonia treatment

if MIC < 2
-amoxicillin/amp
-IV pcn
-imipenem
-macrolides
-quinolones
-cefuroxime

28

empiric treatment for outpatient CAP

macrolide w or w/o amoxicillin
3-7 days if no bacteremia
10-14 if bacteremia

29

treatment of CAP if macrolide resistance

-levo or moxi
-amoxicillin TID
-augmentin
-cefpodoxime
-doxy

30

treatment for inpatient CAP

ceftriaxone + azithromycin

31

patients at risk for pseudomonas

-hospital stay >5 days
-prolonged nursing home stay
-structural lung disease
-on steroids
-neutropenia

32

who to calculate ANC for

immunocompromised pts

33

info needed for ANC calculation

WBC
%neutrophils
%bands

34

duration of therapy for CAP

5 days - no immunocompromise or structural disease
7 days - moderate immunocompromise
10-14 days - poor clinical response, significant immunocompromise

35

patients at risk for h.influenzae pneumonia

adults
elderly
alcoholics
COPD
immune deficiencies

36

treatment for non beta-lactamase h.influenzae

amoxicillin
zpak
cefdinir

37

treatment for beta-lactamase producing h.influenzae

augmentin
cefpodoxime, cefdinir
zpak

38

patients at risk for moraxella catarrhalis pneumonia

smokers
copd
steroid users

39

treatment for moraxella catarrhalis

augmentin
cefuroxime
zpak
moxi/levo
doxy

40

patients at risk for legionella pneumonia

smokers
elderly
liver disease
COPD
high dose steroids

41

treatment for legionella

azithromycin (all macrolides)
levo/moxi
14-21 days for severe
7-14 days for mild-mod

42

treatment for mycoplasma pneumonia

doxy
zpak
clarithromycin
levo/moxi

43

treatment for chlamydia pneumoniae

doxy
zpak
clarithromycin
levo/moxi

44

patients at risk for staph aureus pneumonia

head trauma
prolonged hospitalizations
post flu

45

treatment for staph aureus

nafciullin
cefazolin
dicloxacillin
clindamycin
vanco if PCN allergy

46

specific monitoring parameters for patient undergoing treatment for pneumonia

-pain
-sleeping
-cough productive or not
-SoB
-mental status

47

monitoring parameters for infection in pneumonia

-lung exam
-chest xray
-cultures
-electrolyte changes
-sputum changes

48

monitoring parameters for antibiotic use in pneumonia

-renal function
-side effects of antibiotics
-labs of vanco serum levels

49

bacteria implicated in pneumonia of smoking/COPD patients

S.pneumo
H.flu
M.cat
legionella

50

bacteria implicated in postviral bronchitis pneumonia patients

S.Pneumo
S.aureus

51

bacteria implicated in pneumonia of healthy patients

mycoplasma
chlamydia pneumoniae
S.pneumoniae

52

bacteria implicated in pneumonia patients that use alcohol

S.pneumonia
anaerobes