S5) Anatomy for Dissection — Stomach, Duodenum, Pancreas Flashcards Preview

[AMS] Gastro-intestinal System > S5) Anatomy for Dissection — Stomach, Duodenum, Pancreas > Flashcards

Flashcards in S5) Anatomy for Dissection — Stomach, Duodenum, Pancreas Deck (41)
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1

Identify the following on the stomach:

- Greater curvature

- Lesser curvature

2

Identify the following on the stomach:

- Fundus

- Body

- Antrum

3

Identify the following on the stomach:

- Lower oesophageal sphincter

- Pyloric sphincter

- Cardia

4

Identify 3 key features in the surface anatomy of the stomach

- Stratified columnar epithelium 

- Rugae 

- Gastric pits

5

Describe the superior and inferior anatomical relations of the stomach

Superior: oesophagus, diaphragm

- Inferior: head and neck of pancreas

6

Describe the anterior and posterior anatomical relations of the stomach

- Anterior: greater omentum, abdominal wall, left lobe of liver, gall bladder

- Posterior: lesser sac, left kidney, left adrenal gland, splenic artery, common bile duct, gastroduodenal artery

7

Where can the arterial supply of the stomach be derived from?

Coeliac trunk and its branches

8

Describe the blood supply to the lesser and greater curvatures of the stomach

- Lesser curvature: anastomoses by the right and left gastric arteries

- Greater curvature: anastomoses by the right and left gastro-omental arteries

9

Where do the right and left gastric arteries arise from?

Right gastric – branch of the common hepatic artery, which arises from the coeliac trunk

- Left gastric – arises directly from the coeliac trunk

10

Where do the right and left gastro-omental arteries arise from?

- Right gastro-omental – terminal branch of the gastroduodenal artery, which arises from the common hepatic artery

- Left gastro-omental – branch of the splenic artery, which arises from the coeliac trunk

11

​The veins of the stomach run parallel to the arteries. 

Describe the venous drainage of the of the stomach

- Lesser curvature: right and left gastric veins

- Greater curvature: right and left gastro-omental veins

- Fundus: short gastric veins

12

Where do the right and left gastric veins drain?

The right and left gastric veins drain into the hepatic portal vein

 

13

Where does the short gastric vein, right and left gastro-omental veins drain into?

The short gastric vein, left and right gastro-omental veins ultimately drain into the superior mesenteric vein

14

What is the coeliac trunk and what does it do?

- The coeliac trunk is a major artery of the abdomen

- It arises from the abdominal aorta, and supplies many of the gastrointestinal viscera

15

What are the main branches of the coeliac trunk?

16

The greater and lesser omenta divide the abdominal cavity into two; the greater and lesser sac.

Describe the entrance into the lesser sac 

The greater and lesser sacs communicate via the epiploic foramen, a hole in the lesser omentum

17

Which 3 structures can be found along the free border of the lesser omentum?

Free border of lesser omentum encloses the portal triad

18

What is the sigmoid mesocolon and what does it do?

- The sigmoid mesocolon is a mesentery that attaches the sigmoid colon to the posterior pelvic wall

- The long length of the mesentery permits this part of the colon to be particularly mobile

19

What is the mesentery of the small intestine and what does it do?

The small bowel mesentery is a broad fan-shaped fold of peritoneum connecting the loops of jejunum and ileum to the posterior abdominal wall

20

What is the duodenum and where is it found?

- The duodenum is the most proximal portion of the small intestine

- It runs from the pylorus of the stomach to the duodenojejunal junction

21

The duodenum can be divided into 4 parts. Identify them

22

Describe the anatomical position of the superior region of the duodenum

- It ascends upwards from the pylorus of the stomach

- It is connected to the liver by the hepatoduodenal ligament 

23

Describe the anatomical position of the descending region of the duodenum

- It curves inferiorly around the head of the pancreas

- It lies posteriorly to the transverse colon, and anterior to the right kidney

24

How is the descending region of the duodenum marked and why is this significant?

- Internally, the descending duodenum is marked by the major duodenal papilla – an opening for bile and pancreatic secretions to enter

- The duct responsible carrying these secretions is known as the ampulla of Vater (hepatopancreatic ampulla)

25

Describe the anatomical position of the horizontal region of the duodenum

- It travels laterally to the left, crossing over the inferior vena cava and aorta

- It is located inferiorly to the pancreas, and posteriorly to the superior mesenteric artery and vein

26

Describe the anatomical position of the ascending region of the duodenum

- It ascends and curves anteriorly to join the jejunum at a sharp turn known as the duodenojejunal flexure

- Located at the duodenojejunal junction is a slip of muscle called the suspensory muscle of the duodenum

27

Where is the pancreas located?

The pancreas is a retroperitoneal structure located deep within the upper abdomen in the epigastrium and left hypochondrium regions

28

Describe the anatomical relationship of the pancreas and the duodenum

The duodenum is situated anteriorly and medially, curving around the head of the pancreas

29

The pancreas can be divided into 5 parts.

Identify them

30

Describe the anatomical position of the head of the pancreas

- Lies within the C-shaped curve created by the duodenum

- Connected to duodenum by connective tissue