S6) Chyme, Pancreas and Liver Secretions Flashcards Preview

Y2 SEM 3: Gastro-intestinal System > S6) Chyme, Pancreas and Liver Secretions > Flashcards

Flashcards in S6) Chyme, Pancreas and Liver Secretions Deck (35)
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Describe 3 properties of chyme

- Hypertonic

- Low pH

- Partially digested 


Explain how hypertonic chyme exits the stomach but isotonic chyme exits the duodenum

- Initial digestion of food in stomach creates solutes that make the chyme hypertonic

- Stomach wall largely impermeable to water so chyme cannot be diluted

- Duodenum relatively permeable to water so hypertonic chyme draws in water from ECF/circulation


Duodenum secretes secretin and CCK in response to presence of chyme. 

What is the action of secretin?

Secretin acts on pancreas to stimulate release an aqueous bicarbonate (HCO3-) component of the pancreatic secretion into the duodenum


Duodenum secretes secretin and CCK in response to presence of chyme. 

What is the action of CCK?

- Acts on pancreas to stimulate the release of enzyme component of pancreatic secretion 

- Contracts gallbladder

- Relaxes sphincter of oddi 


How are the exocrine secretions of the pancreas controlled?

- Stimulated via gut hormones

I. Secretin


- Also, autonomic control:

I. Sympathetic inhibits

II. Parasympathetic stimulates (vagus)


Describe the structure of the pancreatic acini


Which enzymes are released from the pancreas?

CCK & vagus nerve stimulate acini to produce enzymes:

- Amylases and lipases (active)

- Proteases (inactive) 


Identify 4 activated proteases which are derived from the secretions of pancreatic acini

- Trypsin

- Chymotrypsin

- Elastase

- Carboxypeptidase 


How are pancreatic proteases produced and stored?

Protease enzymes (inactive) produced within acinar cells are concentrated and stored in zymogen granules 


What do zymogen granules contain?

Zymogen granules contain zymogen e.g. trypsinogen; which is converted to trypsin in intestinal lumen


What happens when pancreatic duct cells are stimulated?

Duct cells secrete aqueous component (isotonic) and bicarbonate which act to neutralise the acidic chyme



How do pancreatic secretions get to the duodenum?

Pancreatic secretions reach the duodenum via pancreatic duct and ampulla of vater 


How does the liver respond to the presence of chyme?

Liver secretes bile (stored in gallbladder) into the duodenum 


What does bile consist of?

- Bile acid-dependent: bile acids and pigments

- Bile-acid independent: alkaline solution 


What is the role of bile in the duodenum?

Bile emulsifies fat (lipids) in duodenum so that they can be readily digested by pancreatic lipases


Describe the micro-anatomy of the liver

Lobules form the structural units of the liver

- Hexagonal arrangement of cells, bile ducts and blood vessels 


Describe the arrangement of structures in the liver lobule

- Triad of structures at each corner: portal vein (branch), hepatic artery (branch), bile duct

- Central vein in middle 


Describe the flow of blood and bile in the liver lobule

Blood flows in towards central vein via sinusoids from the branches of the portal vein and hepatic artery

- Bile flows out along canaliculi and bile duct into duodenum 


What is the name of the functional area of the liver lobule?

Functional area of the lobule is called the acinus


With references to the liver, what is the significance of blood draining from the periphery of the lobule towards the centre?

- Substances brought to the liver from gut therefore start at periphery and work towards middle (towards central vein)

- Creates a series of zones (1,2,3) corresponding to distance from arterial blood supply


Describe the production of bile in the liver

- Bile is continuously produced by hepatocytes and duct cells in liver

- It is only needed intermittently and, thus, is stored in the gallbladder


Describe the secretion of bile into the duodenum

- CCK stimulates the contraction of gallbladder

- Bile is secreted via the common bile duct, then Ampulla of Vater into duodenum 


Which structure secretes bile acids and pigments?

Bile acids and pigments are secreted into canaliculi by hepatocytes 


Which structure secretes alkaline juices?

Alkaline juices are secreted by bile duct cells which are stimulated by secretin


What are bile salts?

Bile salts are bile acids conjugated with amino acids (glycine, taurine) 


There are two primary bile acids.

Identify them

- Cholic acid

- Chenodeoxycolic acid


Why are bile acids conjugated?

- Bile acids are not always soluble at duodenal pHs

- Bile salts have an amphipathic structure (hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends)

- Bile salts allow emulsification of dietary lipids 


Why do bile salts need to emulsify fats?

- Lipids form large globules once in duodenum, with a small surface area for lipases to act

- Bile salts emulsify fat into disperse droplets, increasing surface area for lipases


Bile salts then create micelles with products of lipid breakdown.

What do they do?

Micelles act as a vehicle for transporting hydrophobic molecules (products of lipid digestion) towards the luminal membrane of an enterocyte 


What happens after lipids diffuse into intestinal epithelium cells?

- Inside the enterocyte, lipid molecules are re-esterified back to triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol

- Then they are packed with apoproteins within enterocyte, forming chylomicrons