S9) Gastrointestinal Infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in S9) Gastrointestinal Infections Deck (36)
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1

Identify the 5-step clinical approach when dealing with GI infections

- History (incl travel and exposure history)

- Physical examination (incl hydration status)

- Investigation (samples, tests)

- Supportive treatment (±antimicrobial treatment)

- Infection prevention & control measures

2

Identify 3 major causes of infective diarrhoea as well as the organisms involved

- Bacteria: salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, enterotoxigenic E. coli, C.diff

- Viruses: norovirus, rotavirus, adenoviruses

- Parasites: cryptosporidium, giardia, entamoeba 

 

3

Which organisms are observed in selective nutrient agars of stool cultures?

- Salmonella

- Shigella

- Campylobacter spp

- E.coli

4

A Campylobacter infection is a major cause of diarrhoea worldwide. 

Where is it found?

The Campylobacter organism lives in the GI tract of animal hosts, especially poultry

5

Identify 3 methods of transmission for a Campylobacter infection

- Contaminated food

- Water

- Direct contact with animals/animal products 

6

Which organisms usually cause Campylobacter enteritis?

- C. jejuni

- C. coli 

7

Identify 5 symptoms of a Campylobacter infection (may mimic appendicitis)

- Abdominal pain & cramps

- Diarrhoea (absent/bloody)

- Nausea

- Prodromal symptoms (fever, rigors, aches, dizziness)

- Colitis

8

Identify 5 acute complications of Campylobacter enteritis

- Cholecystitis

- Peritonitis (patients with peritoneal dialysis)

- Rash (urticaria, erythema nodosum)

- Septic pseudoaneurysm

- Pericarditis & myocarditis 

9

Identify 2 late complications of Campylobacter infections

- Reactive arthritis

- Guillain-Barré syndrome 

10

Outline the treatment of Camplybacter enteritis

Supportive treatment

- Antibiotics if severe, pregnant, elderly or immunocompromised (fluoroquinolone / macrolide)

11

What is Cyclospora cayetanensis?

Cyclospora cayetanensis is a coccidian parasite which is associated with travellers diarrhoea

12

Where is Cyclospora cayetanensis usually found?

- Endemic in South and Central America, South Asia, South-east Asia, the Middle East and Africa

- Outbreaks in Europe and North America associated with food contamination

13

How does a Cyclospora cayetanensis infection spread?

Faeco-oral transmission (food / waterborne)

14

Identify 6 symptoms of a Cyclospora cayetanensis infection

- Anorexia

- Nausea

- Flatulence

- Fatigue

- Abdominal cramping

- Watery diarrhea

15

Describe the duration of illness for a Cyclospora cayetanensis infection

Incubation period ~7 days after ingestion

- Average course length of illness ~ 3 weeks 

16

Outline the treatment of a Cyclospora cayetanensis infection

Supportive treatment – fluid rehydration

- Antibiotics – trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole 

17

How can a Cyclospora cayetanensis infection be prevented?

Prevention – attention to food hygiene when travelling to endemic areas 

18

What is a norovirus?

A norovirus is the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis and its peak incidence is in winter, affecting all ages

19

Where do norovirus outbreaks usually occur?

Outbreaks associated with hospitals, schools, nurseries, restaurants, cruise ships, hotel resorts

20

How is the norovirus transmitted?

- Faeco-oral

- Person-to-person

21

How long is the incubation period for a norovirus?

Incubation period 24-28 hours 

22

In detail, explain how the norovirus is transmitted

- <100 viral particles can cause transmission

- Viral particles shed in stool and vomitus

- Fomites can contaminate environment

23

Describe the treatment of a norovirus infection

Supportive treatment – fluid rehydration

- No antiviral treatment available

24

Infection prevention and control are key in avoiding and managing outbreaks. 

Describe the prevention of the norovirus outbreaks

- Hand washing

- PPE

- Isolation

- Environmental cleaning

25

Identify 4 infective causes of bloody diarrhoea

- Campylobacter 

- E.Coli

- Salmonella

- Shigella

26

What is the route of transmission for Shigella infection?

Foecal-oral route

27

How do you identify clinically that a child is dehydrated?

- Xerostomia (tongue)

- Skin turgor

- Elevated HR

- Low BP

28

What kind of bacteria is Shigella?

Shigella is a gram-negative rod shaped anaerobic bacteria

29

Identify a virulence factor of shigella

Shiga toxin

30

Describe the 4-step mechanism used by Shigella to cause bacteria