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Flashcards in SA Deck (127):
1

• Study of patterned and shared human behavior (Palispis, 2007)

Sociology

2

social institutions, social groups, stratification, social mobility, bureaucracy , ethnic groups and relations; (family education, politics, religion and economy)

social organization

3

human nature resulting from group life, social attitudes, collective behavior and personality formation (rally, mob,wake)

social psychology

4

change in culture and social relations; social disruptions; adjustments with regards to group behavior; removing the main purpose for a social purpose, detaching from the actual experience (Ex. The use of smartphones)

social change and social disorganization

5

nature and behavior of a given population and its relationship with other groups or with existing institutions

human ecology

6

number, composition, changes and quality of a given population as they affect the economic, political and social systems

population/demography

7

how principles and theories of group life may be applied and used for the regulation of man

sociological theory and method

8

application of findings of sociological research in various aspects of social life.

applied sociology

9

➢ Systematic investigation of behavior needed to improve society
➢ Father of Sociology


August Comte

10

➢ Law of three stages: universal law at work in all sciences, stages of development of all knowledge about humanity

August Comte

11

➢ Idea of Positivism (necessary for rebuilding a society on a rational basis)

August Comte

12

➢ Published Positive philosophy (summarizes stages of development of all knowledge about humanity)

August Comte

13

➢ Coined term “sociology”

August Comte

14

➢ Applying scientific method to study of society and social relations

August Comte

15

➢ German philosopher, political economist, historian, political theorist, sociologist, communist and revolutionary

➢ Wrote the Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels


➢ Worked with Engels

Marx

16

➢ Credited for being the founder of communism

Marx

17

➢ No property, no hierarchy, no social discrimination (Criticism: people will always find a measure of social hierarchy)

Marx

18

➢ Central tenet: Exploitation of the labor force (bottom of the worker hierarchy: GP, nurses, midwives)

Marx

19

➢ All aspects of society are economically conditioned and controlled by capitalism

Marx

20

➢ Society divided between two classes that clash in pursuit of interests

Marx

21



• Works:
• The Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism
• The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism
• Theory of Social and Economic Organization
• Politics as a Vocation – entity claiming monopoly on the legitimate use of violence

Max Weber

22

• Studies traditional organization and formal organization (black and white and no gray area)

Max Weber

23

To comprehend behavior, one must learn subjective meaning people attach to actions
Employ verstehen: understanding; insight
Ideal type: Construct for evaluating specific cases

Max Weber

24

➢ Breakdown of traditional social organizations → anomie (condition of normlessness and loss of social control)

Emile Durkheim

25

➢ Suicides

Emile Durkheim

26

➢ Division of Labor in Society

Emile Durkheim

27

➢ 1st French academic sociologist who obtained a doctorate degree in sociology

Emile Durkheim

28

Proponent of the Functionalist Theory

Emile Durkheim

29

➢ Individuals are more of a product that creator of society

Emile Durkheim

30

➢ Behavior must be understood within larger social context: individuals are more of a product that creator of society (Ex. ↑ display of sensuality and intimacy, people becomes more open to that practice)

Emile Durkheim

31

➢ Major works and contribution include:
• The Rules of the Sociological Method
• Sociology of Religion
• Sociology of Education
• Crime and deviance (Normal and pathological)
• Suicide

Emile Durkheim

32


• Social theory: Introduction of typologies of social groups
• Gemeinshaft: type of group willed into being because of sympathy among its members, or the expression of their will (ex. Neighborhood and friendship group)
-mechanical society
-with emotional attachment; goal: join organizations, look for friends, etc
• Gesellschaft or the arbitrarily willed group that arises to attain some definite end (ex. City and the state)
-organic society; goal-oriented
-no emotional attachment; main goal: study

Ferdinand Toennies (1855-1936)

33


• Taught political economy (now economics)

William Graham Sumner

34

• Author of Folkways and the Science of Society – study of folkways

William Graham Sumner

35

• Coined the term ‘ethnocentrism’ (inclination or belief that your culture is superior than others; majority of the Europeans)

William Graham Sumner

36


• Theory of structural functionalism


A.R. Radcliffe-Brown (1881-1955)

37

• Contributions in the development of the structural-functionalism (anthropological use)

A.R. Radcliffe-Brown (1881-1955)

38

Made anthropology a college subject

A.R. Radcliffe-Brown (1881-1955)

39


• Worked alongside Karl Marx


Friedrich Engels (1820-1903)

40

Works: The condition of the working class in England; Socialism: Utopian and Scientific; Origin of family, private property and the state.

Friedrich Engels

41

Co-authored the Communist Manifesto

Friedrich Engels

42

• The Theory of the Leisure Class (critique of American economy)
• Concepts of conspicuous consumption (buying goods to show people that they are rich

Thorstein Veblen

43


• Russian-American
• Founded the Department of Sociology at Harvard University

Pitirim Sorokin (1889-1968)

44


• General theory for the study of society: “Action theory”

Talcott Parsons (1902-1979)

45

Human action is not to be completely free but grounded in norms or ultimate principles of action

Talcott Parsons

46

Brought the theories of the grand masters (Durkheim and Weber) to the US and embedded these in the American culture

Talcott Parsons

47

Key proponent of the Structural-Functionalist perspective (sociology)

Talcott Parsons

48

Studies human being through genetics, inherited traits, evolution and adaptation. (Use of fossils especially of human bones)

Physical anthropology / biological anthropology:

49

Main concern is human society and culture. Investigates the culture and social organizations of a particular group of people including their language, political organization, kinship, socialization, tradition and gender relation.

Cultural anthropology

50

studies the process of human communications (i.e. variation of language across time); relationship of language and other aspects of culture like ethnicity, social status, etc.

Linguistic anthropology

51

examines the distribution and form of artifacts, and the cultural patterns or movements of ancient life. It aims to reconstruct an individual’s past behavior by studying the fossils and artifacts.

Archaeology

52

first systematic anthropological work
-recorded the beliefs and customs of the Aztec

Fray Bernardino Sahagun

53

Customs of the American Savages Compared with Customs of Early Times (comparative ethnology)
-work with the Iroquois

Francois Lafitau

54

– anthropology as a full-fledged field
-proponent of the three stages of evolution of human society (savagery, barbarism, civilization)

William Robertson

55


• Theory of speculative evolutionism that dealt with the concept of culture and the evolutionary development of religion in a culture
• Unilinealism – all societies pass through a single evolutionary process
• Cultural diffusionism

Edward Burnett Tylor (1832-1917)

56

• Founder of kinship studies
• Greatest contribution: reconstructing the evolution of kinship system.

Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881)

57


• Father of American anthropology
• Stressed the need to develop reliable and objective methods of observation and data gathering in ethnographic studies (empirical)
• Interrelatedness of the 4 main fields in anthropology had its origins in ___ anthropology
• Fought discrimination against immigrants

Franz Boas

58


• Instrumental in introducing anthropology as a university subject
• Contributions in developing the structural-functionalist approach
• Initiated the development of methods of observation and recording in ethnographic study

A.R. Radcliffe-Brown (1881-1955)

59


• Early works were anthropological, but shifted to sociology
• Just like Radcliffe-Brown, stressed the importance of empiricism and training method in building scientific base

Emile Durkheim

60


• Contributions in data gathering procedure through the native’s point of view (method later called as the participant observation)
• Ethnographic studies in New Guinea
• Argonauts of the Western Pacific

Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942)

61


• 20th century public anthropologist; mentored by Franz Boas
• Did a number of ethnographic studies in the Pacific
• An great in influence in American anthropology
• Coming of Age in Samoa

Margaret Mead (1901-1978)

62


• Extensive anthropological studies about the Philippines ; one of the pioneers of Philippine anthropology
• Spent his career in pursuit of procuring and conserving evidence of ancient culture of the Philippines.

Dr. Henry Otley Beyer

63


• Wrote about pre-Hispanic Philippines
• Led a team to conduct excavations in Batangas

Robert Bradford Fox (1918-1985)

64


• Filipino values

Felipe Landa Jocano (1930-present)

65


• Wrote about the Cordilleras and the pre-Hispanic Philippines.
• PhD from UST
• Best known for debunking the Kalantiaw legend

William Henry Scott (1921-1993)

66


• American anthropologist recognized as the most senior practitioner of archaeology in Southeast Asia.
• Pioneer in the study of Philippine and Southeast Asian prehistoric archaeology
• Hypothesized the existence of Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network

Wilhelm Solheim (1924-present)

67


• Medical anthropologist
• Wrote about indigenous medical beliefs, sexuality, reproductive and sexual health, pharmaceuticals and health policies.

Michael Tan, Ph.D

68

– early recent; 65 M years ago
-death of dinosaurs
-existence of pre-primates like femur

1. Paleocene

69

– 30 -45 M years ago
-warm tropical climates
-order of mammals and prosimian like primates
-Anthropoids

2. Eocene

70

30 M years ago, very short
-elephants with trunks, horses, grasslands

3. Oligocene

71

– 23 M y.a.
-kelp forests and grasslands

4. Miocene

72

5 M ya, cooling and drying of environment
-grasslands and savannas
-robustus, africanus, anamensis, ardipithecus

5. Pliocene –

73

earliest forms
-subsistence economies rarely produce surplus
-unit of social organization: household and local clan
-division of labor based on sex

1. Hunting, and Fishing, and Gathering society

74

– 12 000 – 15 000 ya ago
-first breakthrough in subsistence economy: development of agriculture
-occupational specialization
-well-established social stratification

2. Horticultural society

75

– herding and domestication

3. Pastoral society

76

– 5000 to 6000 ya ago
-occurrence of 2nd agricultural revolution
-use of plow and irrigation
-capable of producing huge surpluses

4. Agricultural society

77

– 3rd major revolution in production
-substitution of mechanical, electrical, and fossil-fuel energy for human and animal labor = growth in productivity and knowledge and technology


5. Industrial Society

78

Excavations of tabon man (with robert fox and alfred evangelista)

Dr Henry Otley beyer

79

Gave the idea of malay, negrito, indones

Dr Henry Otley beyer

80

According to THEM, civilization developed from within dispersal of culture

Jocano
Wilhelm Solheim II

81

According to him the idea of malay negrito and indones is questionable

Felipe landa Jocano

82

Concept of survival of the fittest

Herbert Spencer

83

Studied how cultures differ based on Western parameters

Margaret Mead

84

According to him culture must be studied by living with the people

Bronislaw Malinowski

85

Hand axe discovered in Europe

Abbevilian

86

Found in Taung south africa
One of the earliest known

Australopithecus or Southern Ape

87

Skull found by Louis Leakey in Olduvai, George, Tanzania

Zinjanthropus

88

Skull teeth femur found by eugen dubois in East Java

Java Man
Pithecanthropus erectus

89

Upright ape man

Pithecanthropus erectus

90

Found in beijing china

Sinanthropus pekinensis or peking Man

91

Current name of Sinanthropus pekinensis

Homo erectus pekinensis

92

Found by B.D. Van rietschoten in Gunung Lawu, Central java
Turned over to Dubois

Wadjak Man I

93

More advances form of hominid found in Sarawak, Borneo
Late immaturity unknown sex

Niah man

94

According to -----, ------ are what distinguishes ancient ape-like man from true apes

Oakley
Tools

95

Tools in the iron age

dagger
Roman scythe

96

Tools during the bronze age

Bronze buckets and axheads

97

Hand axe discovered in europe

Abbevilian

98

Where were the oldest artifacts in asia found?

Zhoukoudian China

99

What were the artifacts discovered in Zhoukoudian China

Chopping tools fromcchert pebbles

100

Related disciplines to SA

History
Political science
Psychology
Economics

101

Methods of Inquiry

Empirical investigation
Objectivity
Ethnical neutrality
Sociological imagination

102

Pertain to how society os viewed

Sociological frameworks

103

Sociological theories

Pay attention to existig realities in the society and tries to formulate explanations as to cause and effects

104

Totality of social organizations which include social structure and system

Society

105

Organization and stability is determined by harmonious social functions

Structural functionalism

106

CHanging social roles, linkages and institutions affect parts of society and disrupts social system

Structural functionalism

107

Example of Structural functionalism

Caste system

108

Societies make selections and adjustments leading to social change for adaptation purposes in order to improve social conditions

Social darwinism

109

Example of social darwinism

Genocide
Ethnic cleansing
Capital punishment
Revolutions
Feudal system

110

Economic determinism or factors determine the:
course of social change
Social class conflict in a struggle towards control of resources

Conflict theory

111

Examples ofconflict theory

War
Competition
Exploitation
Oppression

112

Society is being built out of the conflicting interests of the owner class and working class

Social conflict theory by marx

113

In his view, the ensuing struggle between classes would lead to a classless society

Social conflict theory

114

Society is created from the ongoing conflict between key groups

Social conflict theory

115

According to the social conflict theory, who are the main economic classes of society?

Those who own the main wealth of society
Those who own little but their ability to labor

116

People derived meaning from symbols attahed in interactions which in turn determines their course of action and reaction

Symbolic interactionism

117

Examples of symbolic interactionism

Love parenthood
Smile money

118

Social relationships form and continue insofar as it is rewardih
Dissolves when it is no longer mutually beneficial or satisfying

Exchange theory

119

Examples of exchange theory

Husband wife
Employer employee
Entrepreneur client

120

Classification of social groups based on organization

Formal informal

121

Classification of social groups based on membership

Open group
Closed group

122

Classification of social groups based on structure

Primary
Secondary

123

Classification of social groups based on association and orientation

Gemeinschaft and
Gesselschaft

124

Classification of social groups based on purpose

Interest group
Pressure group

125

Classification of social groups based on perspectives

In
Out
Reference

126

Similarities of S and A

Social sciences
Highly relevant to the society
Systematized

127

– special knowledge
-spread of computer industries
-highly ttained specialists

6. Post-industrial society

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