nervous system and functioning Flashcards Preview

Year 12 Psych revision > nervous system and functioning > Flashcards

Flashcards in nervous system and functioning Deck (55):
1

Central nervous system

transmits and receives messages to and from the peripheral nervous system

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CNS: Brain

responsible for everything we think, feel and do

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CNS: spinal cord

connects brain and peripheral nervous system

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peripheral nervous system

carries messages to and from central nervous system
(muscles, organs, glands)

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PNS: somatic nervous system

carries messages from sensory receptors in the body to the central nervous system
and motor messages from the CNS to skeletal muscles

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PNS: autonomic nervous system

connects central nervous system to internal organs and glands; self regulating

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ANS: sympathetic nervous system

prepares body for action
pupils dilate, increase heart rate, relaxes bladder

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ANS: parasympathetic nervous system

relaxes the body after action
pupils constrict, heart rate slows, bladder constricts

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conscious responses

communication involves conscious awareness
talking, waving
somatic nervous system functions

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unconscious responses

some communication involves unconscious awareness
breathing, stomach contractions
autonomic nervous system functions

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spinal reflex

unconscious reactions in the form of autonomic and finely coordinated movements in response to external stimuli
initiated by inter, sensory and motor neurons (in spinal cord)
pain can't be felt till message reaches the brain

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communication within a neuron

neuron has resting potential when not activated
negatively charge ions=inside neuron
positively charged ions= outside neuron
action potential is initiated by the soma and travels along axon towards the axon terminals
negative and positive ions swap
all or nothing process
electrical energy

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neural communication

synaptic knob/terminal button of pre synaptic neuron releases neurotransmitters across synaptic gap/synapse
received by dendrite of post synaptic neuron

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the role of neurotransmitters

chemical substance made up of small molecules
when the neurotransmitter is released it finds receptor on the post synaptic neuron
each neurotransmitter binds with its specific type of receptor
lock and key process to unlock action potential

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lock and key process

only the neurotransmitters(key) that are the right chemical shape to fit in to the receptors(lock) on the post synaptic neuron's dendrites, will be admitted into the neuron

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excitatory effect

makes the pos synaptic neuron more likely to fire (trigger action potential
glutamate- esssential for memory formation and learning

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inhibitory effect

makes the post synaptic neuron less likely to fire
GABA- essential for motor control, reduces anxiety

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parkinson's disease: motor symptoms

Abnormal Posture/ postural instability
Resting tremor
Reduced coordination & balance

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Eustress

positive psychological response to the stressor when the stress is beneficial or desirable
enthusiastic, motivated, excited
(short term)

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distress

negative psychological response to the stressor when the stress is undesirable
anger, anxiety, nervousness
(short/long term)

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daily pressures

stresses that consist of minor events that occur throughout each day

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life events

major significant but relatively rare events that require a change in behaviour within a short time

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acculturative stress

a person changing their behaviour to adopt the cultural traits of the dominant culture they have moved to`

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catastrophe stress

sudden/unpredictable event that is out of control of the individual and causes suffering

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Fight-Flight-Freeze response

involuntary reaction resulting in a state of physiological readiness to deal with an acute stressor or immediate threat.

fight- confronting it
flight- escaping to safety
freeze- staying still/avoiding detection

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the role of cortisol

stress hormone that energises body by increasing energy supplies
produced by adrenaline glands
secrete glucose into bloodstream from muscles to use energy source
anti-inflammatory effect, blocking white blood cells
suppresses activity of immune system to divert energy to body's stress combating efforts
may increase vulnerability to viral/bacterial infection

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G.A.S: stage 1

alarm reaction: shock
first becomes aware of the stressor and the body goes into a temporary state of distress or fright

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G.A.S: stage 1 (pt 2)

alarm reaction: counter-shock
sympathetic nervous system activates the muscles, organs, glands to increase the body's resistance to the stressor

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G.A.S: stage 2

resistance
body's ability to withstand stressor rises above normal
cortisol+adrenaline
if successful parasympathetic NS will return the body to homeostasis

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G.A.S: stage 3

exhaustion
if resistance phase lasts long enough the body will undergo physical signs of wear and tear
high levels of cortisol still in body=vulnerability

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G.A.S

genereal adaptation syndrome
Seleye

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lazarus and folkman

transactional model of stress and coping

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transactional model of stress and coping: primary appraisal

evaluation of the significance of the vent/stressor
harm/loss
threat
challenge
irrelevant
benign

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transactional model of stress and coping: secondary appraisal

facing a stressor, it is an assessment of people's coping options and resources
at this stage person can reappraise

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transactional model of stress and coping: reappraise

follows an earlier reappraisal to same stressor and modifies it

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context specific effectiveness

where there is a match or a good fit between the coping strategy that is used and the stressful situation
physical environment
the stressor
individual involved

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coping flexibility

a persons ability to effectively modify coping behaviour according to the nature of each stressor

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ability to cope

context specific effectiveness + coping flexibility

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approach strategy

behaviours that attempt to decrease the stress by reducing the problem
healthy response to stress
(commence homework, apply for jobs)

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avoidance strategy

avoiding dealing with stress by protect oneself from psychological distress
maladaptive, unhealthy for the individual and unhelpful for relieving the source of the stress
ignore the facts, denial

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exercise strategy

activities to promote or maintain your bodily health
being physically active releases endorphins- chemical that promote feeling of wellbeing
provide an avenue for people to expel built up stress or tension

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parkinson's disease: non motor symptoms

Sleep disturbances/ Fatigue
Dementia
Anxiety/ depression

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problem focused coping

works out ways to manage or change the problem or
stressful situation

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emotion focused coping

Involves trying to reduce the
negative emotional feelings
associated with the stressor

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sources of stress

major
catastrophe
acculturative
life events
daily pressures

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dendrites

receive information from other neurons
conduct nerve impulses toward the soma

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axon

nerve fibre that carries information away from the soma
toward other cells that communicate with the neuron.

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myelin sheath

layer of fatty tissue surrounding the axon of a neuron that acts as an insulator + allows faster transmission of the electrical signal.

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axon terminals

initiates the communication between two neuron's across a synapse (gap)

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GAS strengths

measures a predictable pattern that can be measured in individuals

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GAS limitation

research conducted on rats, doesn't account for individual differences

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Transactional strengths

Emphasises the importance of cognitive appraisal in determining the stress response

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Transactional limitations

difficult to test through experimental research because of the subjective nature
complexity of individual responses to stressful experiences.

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sensory neurons

carry sensory information to CNS

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Motor neurons

Carry motor commands from cns to muscles, organs, glands