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Year 12 Psych revision > Sac 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sac 2 Deck (85):
1

learning

permanent change in knowledge/behaviour that occurs from experience

2

neural plasticity

1. brains ability to change structure/function in response to experience/damage
2. enables us to learn and remember new things and adjust to new experiences

3

LTP

1. long term potentiation
2. long lasting strengthening of synaptic connections between neuron's after repeated stimulation
4. enhanced synaptic transmission
5. crucial for making learning possible

4

LTD

1. long term depression
2. long lasting weakening of synaptic connections, reduces synaptic efficiency
5. neurons out of sync begin to lose link

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neurotransmitters vs neurohormones: similarities

1. both are chemical messages produced by the body
2. both secrete at the terminal buttons

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neurotransmitters vs neurohormones: differences

neurotransmitters:
1. secreted into synaptic gap, deliver message to target cells
more rapid messages
neurohormones:
2. secreted into bloodstream for transport to target cells messages travel more slowly

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glutamate in synaptic plasticity

1. major excitatory neurotransmitter
learning and memory formation
2. promotes growth and strengthening of synaptic connections between neurons within neural pathway

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neurohormones: adrenaline and memory

1. chemical messages that are manufactured by neurons and released from axon terminals
2. released into capillaries then absorbed into blood stream and carried to target cells or neurons

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process of memory

1. encoding
2. storage
3. retrieval

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process of memory: encoding

1. putting information into a form that will allow it to fit in with your personal storage system

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process of memory: storage

1. keeping info in the brain so that we can use it later on
store the info in an organised way to make it easier to recover memories

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process of memory: retrieval

1. relies on using the right cues we can get the correct location in our semantic networks

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atkinson and shiffrin: structural features

1. built in, fixed features of memory that don't vary from one situation to another
storage capacity and storage duration unlimited

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atkinson and shiffrin: control processes

1. selected and used by each individual and may vary in different situations
2. they're under conscious control of individual and which control process is used depends on what individual does
3. attention, rehearsal, retrieval

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sensory memory

1. first stage of memory
2. memory with sense organs
3. information in our environment is received by our senses

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sensory memory: steps

step 1. new sensory info enters memory when it is registered
step 2. sensory memory stores information briefly
step 3. capacity is believed to be unlimited
4. info is held just long enough to encode it into a useable form and transfer it to stm for further processing
5. if info enters sensory memory it and ignored fades rapidley

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iconic memory

1. stores in form for 1/2 second
2.intensity of visual stimulus determines how long icon will
3.last, only long enough for encoding to begin
4.visual info changes constantly, must deal with quickley

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echoic memory

1.storage time is temporary
1.sounds remain as echo for 3-4 seconds
1.long enough for sounds to encode and selected for attention

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chunking

1.grouping seperate items of info so they form a larger single item
2. increase stm's normal storage capacity
letters, numbers,words

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rehearsal: increasing stm duration- maintenance

1.repetition of info a number of times so it can be held in 2.short term memory for the longer 18-20 seconds

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rehearsal: increasing stm duration- elaborative

1.linking new information in some meaningful way with information already stored in LTM
2. or with other pieces of new information, to hold it in short term for longer than 20 seconds.

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long term memory

1.used for relatively permanent storage of unlimited amount of info
2.retrieved by locating in LTM and returning it to conscious awareness

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explicit memory

1.occurs when info can be consciously or intentionally retrieved and stated
2.process that involves memory with awareness
remembers when a pet died

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declarative memory:

1.stored for factual information
2.names, faces, words, dates
3.semantic and episodic

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semantic memory

1.knowledge of facts and concept of world
2.rules, knowledge

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episodic memory

1.info about specific events or personal experience
2.time, place, description

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implicit memory

1.remembering something involves 2.unconscious/unintentional retrieval
3.can be expressed through actions or behaviour
4.memory without awareness
riding a bike

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procedural memory

1.learnt skills or actions
2.only be fully expressed through actions

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serial position effect

1.superior immediate free of items at beginning or at end of the list compared to those in the middle of list

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serial position effect: primary effect

1.superior recall for items at the beginning of a list compared to items in the middle of list
2.primary encoding- items at beginning of the list are stored in and retrieved from LTM

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serial position effect: recenary effect

1.superior recall for items at the end of list compared to those in the middle of list
2.encoding- items at end of list are retained in stm, tendency to get more of these items correct than items presented earlier on in list

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explicit memory; hippocampus

1.transfers new memory for storage
2.connected to frontal lobe, amygdala and thalamus

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middle of list: asymptote

1.shows interior recall for items in middle
as stm reaches capacity, items are displaced before they can be adequately rehearsed and stored in Ltm
2.encoding- are either not stored in LTM or are displaced from STM

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Amygdala

1.regulates emotions such as fear and agression
not involved in all procedural memory (implicit memory)
2.consolidation of emotional information in memory especially fear

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amygdala and hippocampus:

1.hippocampus is in tact, can be fearful of something
if amygdala is damaged, person will not display physical signs of fear
2.stimulation of amygdala activates hippocampus and learning and memory for unpleasant emotions is linked to amount of amygdala when learning occurs

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cerebral cortex and LTM

1.patients with damage to frontal lobes have little trouble retrieving semantic knowledge, often shows deficit in episodic memory

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Henry Molaison

1.surgeons removed temporal lobe from each hemisphere including amygdala, hippocampus and cortical tissue
2.temporal lobe is in relation to memory
3. surgery reduced his seizures
4.serious memory problems, could not form log term 5.episodic memories
6.STM was normal

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anterograde amnesia

1. stm is affected, inability to encode and store new memories
3.temporal lobe and hippocampal damage

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alzheimers disease

1.a neurodegenerative disease characterised by the widespread of degeneration of brain neurons
2.causing memories to decline in social and cognitive skills, and personality changes

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alzheimers causes

1.amyloid plaques- proteins that form among axon terminals and interfere with communication between neurons
1.neurofibrillary tangles-abnormal build up of protein inside neurons(death of brain cells)
3.reduced levels of acetylcholine in areas of brain that involve learning, memory and intellectual

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measures of retention

- Recall
– Recognition
– Relearning
– Reconstruction

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recall

supply or reproduce facts/information that is stored in Ltm using few or no cues for assistance

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cued recall

1.when you reproduce info from memory
2.but given cues and prompts to assist recall
3. first word of song title

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free recall

requires to reproduce info from memory i any order, without specific use of cues

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serial recall

1.occurs when you reproduce information from memory in the order in which it was originally presented, without 2.specific use of cues
3.order of song titles

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recognition

selecting the correct alternative from a list of possible alternatives.
More sensitive than recall as a measure of retention.
provide retrieval cues, easier to retrieve

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relearning

1.measure of retention, involves learning info that has been learnt and stored in LTM
2.used of seeing if info was retained from original learning
most sensitive and successful

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reconstruction

1.combining stored info with other available info to form what is believed to be more accurate memory
2.influenced by psych and env factors

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context stae dependent cues

1.aid retrieval by recalling information in the same place/environment . where the info was learnt
2.visual imagery to recreate environment
physical landmarks, sounds, smell act as cues

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state dependent cues

1.associated with internal physiological and psychological state at the time the memory was formed
3.happy mood can recall happy events

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loftus' eyewitness testimony

1. requires people who have viewed on event(crime/accident) to give personal account of event
2.influenced by questions and language use
3.undertook research into memory reconstruction

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Loftus' speed experiment

1.45 volunteers
2.each shown clips of car accidents
3.after viewed, asked to write description of what they saw
4.verbs resulted in misinformation effect- they incorporated misleading info into memory of event

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Loftus' model of recall

1.demonstrated that the act of retrieving info from memory is a reconstructive process
2.process of retrieval can be biased/influenced by wording of question
3.misinformation can become stored as updated representation of memory trace

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classical conditioning

1.involuntary
2.passive
3.pairing stimulus and response
4.process of learning association

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NS

1. neural stimulus
2. anything response that doesn't produce a predictable response

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CS

1.conditioned stimulus
2.repeated ucs, cs triggers a similar response to the ucr

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UCS

1.unconditioned stimulus
2.any stimulus that consistently produces a naturally occurring response

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classical conditioning 3 phase process

1.(before)
NS- NR
UCS- UCR
2. (during)
NS+UCS- UCR
3.(after)
CS-CR

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UCR

1.unconditioned response
2.reflexive response which occurs automatically when the US is presented

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CR

1.conditioned response
2.the learned response which is identical to the UCR but is caused by the CS after conditioning

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during conditioning

1.gradually learn/acquire the CR
2.CR progresses in strength from CS+UCS
3.closer in time of pairing, faster the learning

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principals of classical conditioning

1.extinction
2.spontaneous recovery
3.stimulus generalisation
4.stimulus discrimination

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extinction

1.when UCS is repeatedly no longer presented with the CS
2.CR no longer occurs following the presentation of a CS

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spontaneous recovery

an extinct CR reappears if the CS is presented again

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stimulus generalisation

CSs that are similar, to the original CS elicit(present) to CR

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stimulus discrimination

1.specific
2.learnt to discriminate between motion pic stimulus and real world version of it and to modify response of result

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classical conditioning: therapy

1.treating people with maladaptive (bad) behaviour
2.systematic desensitisation- used to reduce phobia, reducing stimulus by gradual steps

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observational learning

1.cognitive process(active)
2.a form of social learning where a person learns by watching/listening to behaviour demonstrated by another

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observational learning: 1. attention

1.must be paid to model's behaviour and its consequences
2.child watching parent make breakfast

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observational learning: 2. retention(in memory)

1.learnt behaviour must be stored in memory as mental representation
2.so observed learning can be utilised later
3.cognitive aspect cause memory must be stored and later 4.to be retrieved to reproduced behaviour
5.procedure+ingredients

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observational learning: 3. reproduction (of behaviour)

1.learner must have physical and intellectual ability to 2.convert mental representations into actions
3.child using kitchen equipment

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observational learning: 4. motivation

1.learner must want to imitate behaviour
2.depend on belief of desirable consequence for 3.reproducing behaviour
4.child wants to make pancakes

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observational learning: 5. reinforcement

1.when there is a prospect of positive result for imitating behaviour, it is likely that the learner will do so

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operant conditioning

1.voluntary
2.a learning process by which the likelihood of a particular 3.behaviour occuring is determined by the consequences of that behaviour

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3 phase model of operant conditioning

antecedent condition- behaviour- consequence

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positive reinforcement

1.good
2.a stimulus that strengthens a response by providing a pleasant consequence

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negative reinforcement

1.a stimulus that strengthens a response by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus
2.behaviour that removes US which is presented by consequence
3.take panadol to remove consequence

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punishment

1.bad= positive
2.good= negative
3.punisher reduces unwanted behaviour
4.smacking child

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response cost

1.negative
2.when a reinforcer and positive state of affairs is removed following a response, decreased the likelihood that this response will occur again
3.grounding teenager(taking away freedom)

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factors effecting reinforcement

1.order of presentation- reinforcement occurs after response
2.timing- immediate
3.appropriateness of reinforcer

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operant conditioning: stimulus generalisation

1.correct response is made to another stimulus for which reinforcement is obtained

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operant conditioning: stimulus discrimination

1.organism makes response to stimulus for which reinforcement is obtained but not for similar stimulus

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operant conditioning: spontaneous recovery

the response after rest period again is shown in absence of reinforcement

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operant conditioning: shaping

1.strategy in which the reinforcer is given any response that is successfully approximates and leads to the final 2.desired response

85

operant conditioning: token economics

1.when desirable behaviour is rewarded with a symbolic reinforcer(token) that can be exchanged at a later date for a tangible reinforcer
2.gold stars