SAC 4 Flashcards Preview

A Units 3-4 Psychology > SAC 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in SAC 4 Deck (36):
1

EEG recordings (...) that (...) patterns (...) as level of (...) changes within (...)

EEG recordings indicate that brain wave patterns change as level of alertness changes within a state of consciousness.

2

- Beta brain wave pattern is associated with (...) and (...) mental activity during (...).

eg, when we are (...), (...) or (...). Also present during states of (...), (...), (...)

- Beta brain wave pattern is associated with alertness and intensive mental activity during NWC.

eg, when we are awake, concentrating or thinking. Also present during states of tension, threat, REM sleep

3

- Alpha brain wave pattern is shown when we are (...) and (...) but (...) and (...) (...) and (...) .

For example, 
if you complete a (...) task and sit down to 
 (...) (...) on actions, brain waves mostly alpha, especially if (...)

Alpha waves mostly originate in the (...)

- Alpha brain wave pattern is shown when we are awake and alert but mentally and physically relaxed and internally focused.

For example, 
if you complete a mentally active task and sit down to 
rest reflect on actions, brain waves mostly alpha, especially if eyes close
Alpha waves mostly originate in the visual cortex.

4

Theta brain wave patterns are commonly produced when we are very (...) , such as when (...) or (...) . They may also be produced when awake and engaged in (...) , during (...) , when (...) and when(...) .

Theta brain wave patterns are commonly produced when we are very drowsy, such as when falling asleep or just before waking. They may also be produced when awake and engaged in creative activities, during dream-like visual imagery, when excited and when deeply meditating.

5

Delta wave patterns are most commonly associated with (...). They begin to appear in (...). In stage (...), there is a predominantly delta brain wave pattern.

Delta wave patterns are most commonly associated with deep, dreamless sleep or unconsciousness. They begin to appear in stage 3 of non-rapid eye movement sleep. In stage 4, during which we experience the deepest sleep, there is a predominantly delta brain wave pattern.

6

EMG

Show the (...)
 (...) in muscular activity during certain (...)

Show the identifiable
 changes in muscular activity during certain states of consciousness

7

EMG
- in (...) we drift into deeper stages of sleep, our muscles (...)
- muscles may (...) ( (...) sleep) or be (...) (during (...) sleep)
- (...) the muscle activity level and (...), more (...). vice versa

EMG
- in falling asleep we drift into deeper stages of sleep, our muscles progressively relax
- muscles may spasm (light sleep) or be completely relaxed (during deep sleep)
- higher the muscle activity level and tone, more alert. vice versa

8

EOG
- clarify the (...) between different (...), (...) sleep and (...) sleep

clarify the distinction between different sleep types, REM sleep and NREM sleep

9

A sleep diary is a (...) of an (...) sleep and (...) time activities, usually (...)

eg. researchers identifies (...) (...), (...), (...) and (...)

A sleep diary is a self-reported record of an individual’s sleep and waking time activities, usually over a period of several weeks. eg. researchers identifies behaviour patterns, sleep time, sleep amount, coffee consumed and physical activity

10

Stimulant eg.

caffeine- tea, coffee
nicotine- cigarette, tobacco product
illegal drugs- cocaine, ecstasy

11

stimulant effect on NS and body

- increase (...) activity and (...) with (...) effect
- produce (...) changes similar to (...) eg. incr. HR thereby contribute (...) (...) (...)
- alter (...): (...), mood , (...)

- increase CNS activity and rest of body with activating/ alerting effect
- produce physiological changes similar to FFF eg. incr. HR thereby contribute overall energising effect
- alter cognitive processes: attention, mood , decision making

12

stimulant effect on brain wave pattern

increase (...) and reduce (...)

increase (...) and decrease (...) of brainwaves

increase Beta and reduce alpha

increase frequency and decrease amplitude of brainwaves

13

stimulants:
levels of awareness

Heightened when we drink coffee in terms of both internal & external events.

14

stimulants:
content limitation

Increased ability to (...) and have (...) However, with (...) stimulants (cocaine) (...) may be (...) (...) & (...) out of touch with (...)

Increased ability to focus and have restricted content. However, with powerful stimulants (cocaine) content may be less restricted & thoughts out of touch with reality

15

stimulants:
controlled and automatic processes

may be carried out more (...) under. However, with more powerful stimulants performance on such tasks will be (...) (e.g. car accidents increase with drug use).

may be carried out more effectively under. However, with more powerful stimulants performance on such tasks will be hindered (e.g. car accidents increase with drug use).

16

stimulants:
emotional awareness

- High level of caffeine consumption can lead to (...). Caffeine and chocolate in very small amounts can (...) (...). Cocaine and ecstasy users may experience a sense of (...).

- High level of caffeine consumption can lead to anxiety. Caffeine and chocolate in very small amounts can enhance mood. Cocaine and ecstasy users may experience a sense of euphoria.

17

stimulants:
time orientation

(...) with moderate caffeine consumption. Powerful stimulants may make time feel as though it passes very (...).

Unlikely to change with moderate caffeine consumption. Powerful stimulants may make time feel as though it passes very quickly.

18

stimulants:
self control

Powerful stimulants(...) . E.g. individuals may (...) more (...) information than when in (...) .

Powerful stimulants lower self-control. E.g. individuals may disclose more personal information than when in NWC.

19

stimulants:
cognitive and perceptual processing

Moderate stimulants would lead to (...) and (...). More powerful stimulants may lead to (...) and (...) (e.g. sounds seem more enhanced, colours brighter.)

Moderate stimulants would lead to enhanced cognitive processing and accurate perceptions. More powerful stimulants may lead to cognitive and perceptual distortions (e.g. sounds seem more enhanced, colours brighter.)

20

Depressant eg.

~alcohols,
~alleviate anxiety symptoms:
- tranquilliser
~opiates: pain relief
- morphine
~barbituates, benzodiazepines

21

Depressant:

- (...) activity of (...) and (...)
- overall (...), (...), (...), (...) or anaesthesia
- alcohol affects (...), (...), (...), (...) and (...)

- decrease activity of CNS and rest of the body
- overall calm state, relation, drowsiness, sleep or anaesthesia
- alcohol affects control inhibition, thought, perception, sleep and coordination

22

Depressant Brain wave pattern

- (...) (...) frequency activity and (...) in (...) frequency activity
- reduced (...) , increased (...)
- decrease (...) with corresponding (...) of (...)

- increase lower frequency activity and decrease in higher frequency faster activity
- reduced beta, increased delta, alpha, theta
- decrease physiological arousal with corresponding inhibited pattern of brain waves

23

Depressant:
level of attention

(...) attention span, (...) concentrating.(...) on the (...) situation and not on (...) consequences to self. Reduced (...)

Shortened attention span, difficulty concentrating. Focusing attention on the immediate situation and not on future consequences to self. Reduced self-awareness.

24

Depressant:
cognitive and perceptual experience

(...) – a slowing down in processing information from the senses.
- may have (...) , (...) , (...) , pain threshold may (...) considerably,, room is spinning.
(...) - Difficulty understanding, thinking clearly and using good judgment. 

(...) - Difficulty forming new memories / memory loss.

Impaired perceptions – a slowing down in processing information from the senses.
- may have trouble seeing, hearing, feeling, pain threshold may rise considerably, blurred vision, room is spinning.
-  Impaired thinking - Difficulty understanding, thinking clearly and using good judgment. 

-  Impaired memory - Difficulty forming new memories / memory loss.

25

Depressant:
content limitation

(...) (...) when intoxicated (thoughts are more disorganized, illogical & irrational). The ability to use (...) declines.

Less restricted when intoxicated (thoughts are more disorganized, illogical & irrational). The ability to use focused attention declines.

26

Depressant:
self control

(...) self-control - Being more (...), (...), (...), acting silly, stating the first thing that comes to mind, falling over and not being able to walk.  Difficulty with (...) and (...) - Writing, lack of coordination, jerky movements, loss of balance, stumbling and falling.

Less self-control - Being more self-confident, daring, impulsive, acting silly, stating the first thing that comes to mind, falling over and not being able to walk.  Difficulty with voluntary muscular control and fine movements - Writing, lack of coordination, jerky movements, loss of balance, stumbling and falling.

27

Depressant:
time orientation

(...) - won’t be aware of how much time has passed and knowing the time.

Impaired perception of time - won’t be aware of how much time has passed and knowing the time.

28

Depressant:
emotional awareness

(...) (anger, aggression, withdrawal).

exaggerated state (anger, aggression, withdrawal).

29

Depressant:
controlled and automatic processes

(...) – e.g.  car accidents become more likely. (...) such as being able to walk in a straight line may also become affected.

Slower reactions times – e.g.  car accidents become more likely. Automatic processes such as being able to walk in a straight line may also become affected.

30

Factors that will influence the effect of alcohol on consciousness

1.body weight
2, age
3. gender
4. mood
5. amount of sleep

31

effects of alcohol on consciousness

1, shortened attention span ie. difficulty concentrating
2. impaired thinking, difficulty understanding, thinking clearly and using good judgement
3. impaired memory, difficulty forming new memories/memory loss
4. slower reaction times, not reacting to stimuli quickly
5. less self control, more self confident, daring, impulsive, acting silly, doing the first thing that comes to mind, falling over and nit being able to walk

32

BAC 0.05%

talkative
more relaxed
more confident
lowered alertness
this is for Dawson and Reid

33

BAC 0.05-0.08%

talkative
inhibitions reduced
judgement impaired
slowed reactions

34

BAC 0.15%-0.30%

unable to walk without help
perception is greatly impaired
higher pain threshold
slurred speech

35

BAC 0.3-0.4

difficulty to wake up
can barely move at all
stuporous but conscious at 0.3
loss of consciousness at 0.35

36

BAC 0.4

coma/death, about 50% of people die at BAC level 0.40. at 0.5 a person will usually stop breathing and die