Sampling Flashcards Preview

Commdent > Sampling > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sampling Deck (60):
1

A sequence of observation, made on a set of objects included in the sample drawn from population

Statistical data

2

Data which have been arranged in a systematic order.

Ungrouped data

3

Data presented in the form of frequency distribution

Grouped data

4

The data may be collected for the whole population or for a sample only.

Collection of data

5

come from vital statistics registries
that track all births and deaths as well as certain changes in legal status such as marriage, divorce, and migration

Direct method

6

required in countries and periods where full data are not available

Indirect method

7

first hand information collected, compiled and published by organization for some purpose

Primary data

8

second hand information which are already collected by some one (organization) for some purpose and are available for the present study.

Secondary data

9

The researcher conducts the survey him/herself and collects data from it. The data collected in this way is usually accurate and reliable. This method of collecting data is only applicable in case of small research projects.

Personal investigation

10

Trained investigators are employed to collect the data. These investigators contact the individuals and fill in questionnaire after asking the required information. Most of the organizing implied this method.

Through investigation

11

The researchers get the data from local representation or agents that are based upon their own experience. This method is quick but gives only rough estimate.

Collection through questionnare

12

The researchers get information through telephone this method is quick and give accurate information.

Through telephone

13

e.g. State Bank, Railway Board, Central Cotton Committee, Boards of Economic Enquiry etc...
● Publication of Trade Associations, Chambers of Commerce etc...
● Technical and Trade Journals and Newspapers.

Semi official

14

Various publication of central, state and govt.
– Various publication of foreign government
– Journals
– Books magazine and newspaper

Published

15

Diaries
Unpublished biographies Private organization

Unpublished

16

means the examination of collected data to discover any error and mistake before presenting it. It has to be decided before hand what degree of accuracy is wanted and what extent of errors can be tolerated in the inquiry. The editing of secondary data is simpler than that of primary data.

Editing of data

17

Is the statistical study of human population

Demography

18

the annual number of live births per 1,000 people.

Crude birth rate

19

the annual number of live births per 1,000 women of childbearing age (often taken to be from 15 to 49 years old, but sometimes from 15 to 44).

General fertility rate

20

the annual number of live births per 1,000 women in particular age groups (usually age 15-19, 20-24 etc.)

Age specific fertility rates

21

the annual number of deaths of children less than 1 year old per 1,000 live births.

Infant mortality rate

22

the number of years which an individual at a given age could expect to live at present mortality levels.

Expectation of life

23

the number of live births per woman completing her reproductive life, if her childbearing at each age reflected current age-specific fertility rates.

Total fertility rate

24

the average number of children a woman must have in order to replace herself with a daughter in the next generation.

Replacement level fertility

25

the number of daughters who would be born to a woman completing her reproductive life at current age- specific fertility rates.

Gross reproduction rate

26

the expected number of daughters, per newborn prospective mother, who may or may not survive to and through the ages of childbearing.

Net reproduction ratio

27

one that has had constant crude birth and death rates for such a long period of time that the percentage of people in every age class remains constant, or equivalently, the population pyramid has an unchanging structure.

Stable population

28

one that is both stable and unchanging in size (the difference between crude birth rate and crude death rate is zero).

Stationary population

29

measure of disease that allows us to determine a person's probability of being diagnosed with a disease during a given period of time.

Incidence

30

measure of disease that allows us to determine a person's likelihood of having a disease.

Prevalence

31

A table which sirts the data according to a certain pattern

Stem and leaf

32

A table which shows the data in different classes

Frequency distribution table

33

Lowest numbers that can actually belong to different classes

Lower class limits

34

Are the largest numbers that can acutally belong to different classes

Upper class limits

35

Numbers used to separate classes

Class boundaries

36

Respective averagebof each class limit

Class midpoints

37

Difference between two consecutive lower class units or class boundaries

Class width

38

A table which shows the data enumerated by cell

Contingency table

39

Ranges of scores grouped together

Histogram

40

Horizontal axis goes from high to low

Line graph

41

The most simple graph/ chart

Bar graph

42

the act of studying or examining only a segment of the population to represent the whole

Sampling

43

Advantages of sampling

Cheaper
Faster
Better quality
More comprehensive data Only possible method

44

Uses of sampling

Evaluating the health status of a population
Investigating the factors affecting health
Evaluating the effectiveness of health measures

45

Criteria of a good sampling design

Representative of the population ● Adequate
● Practicality and feasibility
● Economy and efficiency

46

Basic sampling designs

Non-probability
Probability

47

Judgement or purposive sampling Accidental or haphazard
Quota sampling
Snowball technique

Non probability design

48

Simple random sampling (SRS) Systematic sampling
Stratified random sampling Cluster sampling
Multi-stage sampling Combination of designs

Probability design

49

Advantages of sampling

Cheaper
Faster
More comprehensive data
Better quality

50

common activity in public health is estimating the magnitude or the extent of various health problems and conditions.

Evalutaing the health status of a population

51

Studies which seek to identify the risk factors for given diseases or the determinants of certain conditions or practices.

Investigating the risk factors affecting health

52

Such types of studies are used as basis in making decisions to stop, modify or continue existing public health programs.

Evaluating the effectiveness of health measures

53

This activity is in line with the current thrust on the development of health information systems.

Record systems

54

group from which representative information is desired and to which inferences will be made.

Target population

55

population from which a sample will actually be taken.

Sampling population

56

an object or a person on which a measurement is actually taken or an observation is made

Elementary unit

57

units which are chosen in selecting the sample

Sampling unit

58

collection of all the sampling units.

Sampling frame

59

Means that the sampling design should be sufficiently simple and straightforward so that it can be carried out substantially as planned.

Practicalitu and feasibility

60

Must give the most information at the smallest cost

Economy and efficiency