Science 2nd Semester Flashcards Preview

7 and 8 1st Sem Exams > Science 2nd Semester > Flashcards

Flashcards in Science 2nd Semester Deck (69):
0

Radiation

Energy transferred in sun rays or waves

1

Conduction

Particle contacting

2

Convection

Movement within a fluid ( circulates heat )

3

Land breeze

Movement of air toward WATER from LAND

4

Sea Breeze

Solar radiation warms the land more than the water

5

Coriolis Effect

Moving air and water when the Earth rotates

6

Evaporation

Water forming clouds

7

Precipitation

Rain, Snow, Hail

8

Groundwater

Water in the ground๐Ÿ˜„๐Ÿ˜

9

Run Off

Land by water

10

Watershed

Lakes, streams, rivers that drain to one source

11

Where on Earth is atmospheric pressure the greatest?

Near the surface (troposphere)

The molecules are dense at the surface

12

What are the percentages of gases in the atmosphere?

Nitrogen 78%

Oxygen 21%

13

What is the function of the ozone layer

It keeps out the Suns harmful rays

14

How does co^2 enter the atmosphere?

Breathing, deforestation, pollution, burning fossil fuels

15

What Earth surface change can occur because of deforestation?

Erosion

16

What are three thing that can happen when the sun hits the atmosphere?

Some energy is reflected back
Some is absorbed
Some is trapped in the atmosphere

17

What causes giant loops of air?

Unequal heating on Earth surface

18

Where do the sun's rays strike earth most directly?

On the Equator

19

What causes land a sea breezes?

Land warms faster than water

20

What creates wind patterns on the surface?

Low and high pressure

21

Weather

The state of the atmosphere

22

Air mass

A large body of air similar temp and precip

23

Barometer

Measures atmospheric pressure

24

Front

A boundary between two air masses of different density

25

Weather is the interaction of sun, water and ...

AIR

26

What causes change in weather?

Air masses move and meet

27

What is the name of wind based on?

It comes from the Northeast.

It come North to East

28

How do weather patterns move across the U.S?

From West to East

29

What is weather like in high pressure?

Fair weather, no clouds

Molecules are tightly packed

30

What is weather like in low pressure?

Cloudy, rainy, stormy

Molecules are unbalanced

31

Climate

Weather patterns and conditions in an area

32

Latitude

The place north or south of the equator

33

Leap Year

One extra day in February every 4 years

34

Autumn Equinox

Equal amounts of day/night

35

Vernal equinox

Spring

Equal amounts of day/night

36

Winter solstice

Shortest daylight

37

Summer solstice

Longest daylight

Marks onset of summer

June 24 longest day of daylight

38

Greenhouse effect

The Earth's natural heating process

39

Fossil fuels

A natural fuel

Coal, oil, natural gas

40

Deforestation

Clearing of trees

41

Nuclear fusion

Two atoms join together to form a helium nucleus.

Energy is released

Happens at sun

42

What two factor influence climate?

Large bodies of water
Ocean currents
Global winds
Large cities

43

Large bodies of water influence what on land?

Temperature and Precipitation

44

What location on Earth receives the most solar radiation?

Equator

45

Seasons are caused by what?

The Earth's tilt

46

What would happen if the earth was not tilted?

There would be no seasons

47

What gas increases the greenhouse effect?

Co^2

48

What can a single cell organism do?

Can't organize to make tissues for organs

49

Why do cells have different shapes?

Because they have different functions

50

What is the major difference between animal and plant cells?

Plant cells can make their own food

51

Nucleus

Directs all cell activities

52

Cytoplasm

The inner cell substance

Jelly-like

53

Cell membrane

The outer shell of an animal cell

54

Cell wall

The outer shell of a plant cell

Made of cellulose

55

Chloroplast

Carries out photosynthesis

56

Mitochondria

Where cell repair happens

Powerhouse of cell

57

Define the process of diffusion

Particles move from high concentration to low

How you smell Doritos from a distance

58

Osmosis

Movement of water

59

Proteins

Peanuts, meats, beans

Builds muscle and repairs tissue

60

Fats

Peanuts

61

Carbs

Starches

62

Where does photosynthesis take place?

The chloroplast

63

Homozygous

Dominant

64

Oxygen exits through a...

Stomata

65

What are 3 advantages of asexual reproduction?

Very efficient
No other cell needed
Guaranteed gene

66

What is passed down in sexual reproduction?

Genes

67

After the process of meiosis, how many chromosomes does each cell have?

46 chromosomes

68

What is the difference between phenotype and genotype

Phenotype= what we look like

Genotype= the way our genes look