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Flashcards in Science Deck (31):
1

order of neurovascular bundle in ribs (from top to bottom)

vein
artery
nerve

(VAN)

2

where are the neurovascular bundles in the ribs

costal groove (underneath rib)

3

what is the bundle of fibres above each rib called

what is the order of the fibres (from top to bottom)

collateral bundle

nerve
artery
vein

(NAV)

4

how many holes does the right hilum have

what are they for

5 (bc RIGHT has 5 letters)

2 veins
2 arteries
1 lymphatic vessel

5

how many holes does the left hilum have

what are they for

4 (bc LEFT has 4 letters)

2 veins
1 artery
1 lymphatic vessel

6

what does failure of phagocytosis cause

granulomatous disease

7

type I hypersensitivity definition example

allergy (type I = A = Allergy)

eg food allergy, atopy, eczema

8

type II hypersensitivity definition and examples (4)

direct cell killing via antibodies (type II = B = via antiBodies)

eg graves, myasthenia graves, gullian barr, good pastures

9

type III hypersensitivity definition and example (1)

immune complement activation (type III = C = Complement)

eg lupus

10

type IV hypersensitivity definition and example (4)

delayed type hypersensitivity (type IV = D = Delayed)

eg poison ivy, sarcoidosis, coeliac, TB, T1DM

11

what is V/Q ratio

ventilation/perfusion ratio

12

what is V/Q at the top of the lungs

which is better

high

ventilation is better

13

what is V/Q at the bottom of the lungs

which is better

low

perfusion is better

14

what shape is a haemoglobin oxygen curve

sigmoidal

15

what shape is a myoglobin oxygen curve

logarithmic

16

how is CO2 mainly transported in the blood

bicarbonate

17

what do parasympathetics do to bronchi

contract them = bronchoconstriction

18

which receptor and G protein are responsible for bronchoconstriction

M3
Gq

19

which receptor and G protein are responsible for bronchodilation

B2
Gs

20

what do sympathetics do to bronchi

relax them = bronchodilation

21

resp side effect of steroids

hoarse voice

22

if FEV1/FVC is normal but FEV1 and FVC are both reduced, what kind of resp problem does the patient have

example

restrictive (both lungs and airways are fuckoed)

pneumonia

23

if FEV1/FVC is reduced bc FEV1 is reduced but FVC is normal, what kind of resp problem does the patient have

example

obstructive (FVC is normal = lungs are fine, problem is getting to the lungs)

asthma

24

what type of spirometry result does COPD present with

restrictive AND obstructive

FEV1 reduced
FVC reduced
FEV1/FVC reduced

25

what type of resp failure has decreased O2 but normal CO2

examples

type 1

pneumonia, ARDS

26

what type of resp failure has decreased O2 and high CO2

example

type 2

COPD

DONT GIVE O2!

27

ABGs

pH slightly high (low H+)
CO2 low
HCO3 low

what is the problem

example

partially compensated respiratory alkalosis

hyperventilation, pregnancy, PE

28

ABGs

pH low (high H+)
CO2 high
HCO3 normal

what is the problem

example

uncompensated respiratory acidosis

COPD, asthma, opiate overuse

29

ABGs

pH normal (was previously low, high H+)
CO2 low
HCO3 low

what is the problem

example

fully compensated metabolic acidosis

DKA, acid ingestion, renal failure, peptic ulcer

30

ABGs

pH high (H+ low)
HCO3 high
CO2 normal

what is the problem

example

uncompensated metabolic alkalosis

vomiting, alkali ingestion, vit K deficiency

31

which lung hilum sites higher than the other

left bc of heart