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Flashcards in Science and Religion Deck (19):
1

Open belief system

One open to questioning, testing and falsifying by others and may change as a result of these processes- Popper

2

Closed belief system

One that cannot be disproved, because relies on faith of belief rather than empirical evidence

3

Modernity

Period of application of rational principles and logic to the understanding, development & organization of human societies

4

Alridges 3 stages on how transition to modernity changed human understanding from more religious to more scientific

1. Theological stage
2. Metaphysical stage
3. Positive/scientific stage

5

Who saw modern science as a product of rationalisation?

Weber

6

Postmodernism

Science part of one of many belief systems

7

Impact of science

-Medicine
-Transport
-Pollution
Distinguishing force on its own making it different and has cognitive power because can predict world

8

Mertons Cudos norms

If Popper correct why has science only grown rapidly in last few centuries
=Support from other institutions

9

What 4 ethos did Merton argue science needs to serve as a goal?

1. Communism
2. Universalism
3. Disinterestedness
4. Organised Scepticism

10

What does Horton say?

Agrees is an open belief system open to criticism and testing and being disproved whereas religion and magic is closed belief system.
Religion just based on faith but in science has to be proven

11

Self-sustaining beliefs

Polyani argues belief systems have 3 devices to sustain themselves
1. Circularity
2. Subsidiary explanations
3. Denial of legitimacy

12

Circularity

Each in belief system explained by another idea in belief system

13

Subsidiary explanations

Wasn't done properly

14

Denial of legitimacy

Reject other views

15

Science as closed belief system

-Kuhn argues scientists refusal to consider challenges- mature sciences based on paradigms and ridiculed if outside these

16

Interpretivists

Argue scientific knowledge socially constructed rather than being objective truth and created by social groups.

17

Marxists

Scientific knowledge as far from pure truth. Serves interest of ruling class and capitalism.

18

Feminists

Serving interests of males such as biological ideas justify male dominance

19

Post-modern view

Lyotard- one of many metanarrative , could just be another belief system