Science Chp. 2 vocabulary: Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Science Chp. 2 vocabulary: Cells Deck (36)
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1

Cell

The basic unit of structure and function in living things

2

Microscope

An instrument that makes small objects look large

3

Cell theory

A widely accepted explanation of relations between cells and living things

4

Cell wall

A rigid supporting layer that surrounds the cells plants and other organisms

5

Cell membrane

A thin, flexible barrier that surrounds a cell and controls which substances pass in and out of the cell

6

Nucleus

A large, oval organelle that contains the cells genetic material in the form of DNA and controls many of the cells activity (Basically the control panel)

7

Organelle

A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function in the cell.

8

Ribosomes

A small, grain shaped organelle in the cytoplasm of a cell that produces protein.

9

Cytoplasm

The thick fluid region of a cell located inside the cell membrane in prokaryotic. Between cell membrane and nucleus in eukaryotic.

10

Mitochondria

Rod-shaped organelles that convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out functions

11

Endoplasmic reticulum

An organelle that forms a maze of passage ways in which protein and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to the other

12

Golgi apparatus

An organelle in a cell that receives proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them, and distributes it to the other parts of the cell.

13

Vacuole

A sac-like organelle that stores water, food, and other materials. (Storage area)

14

Chloroplast

An organelle in cells of plants and some other organisms that capture energy from the sun and changes it to energy form that cells can use in making food.

15

Lysosomes

A cell organelle that contains chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones that can be used by the rest of the cell

16

Multicellular

Consisting of many cells

17

Unicellular

Made of a single cell

18

Tissue

A group of similar cells that perform specific functions

19

Organ

A body structure that is composed of different kinds of tissues that work together

20

Organ system

A group of organs that work together to perform major functions

21

Element

A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical change

22

Compound

A substance made of two or more elements chemically combined in a specific ratio or proportion.

23

Carbohydrate

An energy-rich organic compound such as sugar or starch , that is made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

24

Lipid

An energy-rich organic compound, such as fat, oil, or wax, that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

25

Protein

Large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.

26

Enzyme

A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in living things.

27

Nucleic Acid

A very large organic molecule made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus, that contains the instructions cells need to carry out all the functions of life.

28

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid; The genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring

29

Double helix

The shape of a DNA molecule

30

Selectively permeable

A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass across it, while others cannot.