Flashcards in SCIENCE FINAL 2017 Deck (53):
Why is science always subject to change?
With new technological advancements, new knowledge, and more advancements, science is always changing.
How many plates is Earth composed of?
The sun and planets formed together from a cloud of gas and dust; a nebula
What does the influence of gravity do to a nebula?
The nebula shrinks and spins faster
Anything that has mass and takes up space
The amount of space an object takes up
Measures the compactness of a material
The amount of stuff in an object
What does an increase in mass yield? A decrease?
Increase in mass=Increase in volume///Decrease in mass=decrease in volume
What is the formula for density?
The phenomenon of substances settling according to their densities
Energy in motion
The faster the particles, the more _______
Rocks collided and fused together ______
During the formation of Earth the kinetic energy from rocks transformed into _______
How did Earth's surface solidify?
Collisions from meteors and comets slowed down
Why is the interior of the Earth hot today?
Heat from the planets formation, differentiation, and radioactive decay
The phenomenon where unstable atomic nuclei break down and emit particles and heat (radiation)
Where does radioactivity occur?
Radioactivity occurs in elements with an imbalance of neutrons and protons
Describe an alpha particle
Consists of two protons and has a positive electrical charge. It has a helium nucleus and is very weak
Describe a beta particle
An ejected electron from a neutron. It has a smaller mass and electrical charge, but it moves faster. When stopped it becomes an ordinary electron
Describe a gamma ray
High frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus at an excited state. It is more harmful than an alpha and beta particle, and it is very strong
The rate of decay for a radioactive isotope
What evidence do we have that Earth has a hot core?
Evidence of volcanoes, faults and geysers, radioactive decay in radioactive elements, and continental plates.
Plate Tectonic Theory
Surface of plates that move where geological activities occur
Name evidence for Pangaea
Fossils scattered, plates fit together, mountains, etc.
Kinetic Theory of Matter
Matter made up of tiny particles always in motion
The total energy (kinetic or potential) of the particles that make up a substance
Kinetic Molecular Theory
All molecules are in motion and the more kinetic energy in the molecules, the faster they move and the farther they spread out
What does matter contain and NOT contain?
Matter contains thermal energy, and it does NOT contain heat
Where does conduction occur?
Predominately in solids where solids remain restricted
In convection, heated water and gas ____.
Speeds up the reaction in an experiment
All particles are identical
Physical combination of two or more elements or compounds
Pure substance made from only one type of element
Pure substances made from two or more types of atoms
Particle with two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds
Collection of molecules where two or more types of atoms are bonded together and all the molecules are the same
Is Ca(NO3)2 a mixture or a compound?
Two different elements not evenly dispersed
Two different elements evenly dispersed
A change in the physical properties of a substance
The transformation of one or more substances into others
What was Earth's first atmosphere composed of and what happened?
Hydrogen and helium, and this was unable to withstand the solar winds
Name some possible sources for Earth's atmosphere
Comets and meteorites vaporizing upon impact with Earth
Are rocks responsible for rusting?
What evidence for rust do we have appearing 2 BY ago?
Red beds over 2 BY old, and alternating bands of red (rusted) and black (non rusted) iron
What is the equation for Rust?
The natural tendency of energy to disperse from areas of high to low concentration
A chemical reaction that results in the net production of energy (reactants--->products+energy)
A chemical reaction where there is a net consumption of energy