SCIENCE FINAL 2017 Flashcards Preview

2017 Second Semester FINALS > SCIENCE FINAL 2017 > Flashcards

Flashcards in SCIENCE FINAL 2017 Deck (53):
1

Why is science always subject to change?

With new technological advancements, new knowledge, and more advancements, science is always changing.

2

How many plates is Earth composed of?

Seven

3

Nebular Theory

The sun and planets formed together from a cloud of gas and dust; a nebula

4

What does the influence of gravity do to a nebula?

The nebula shrinks and spins faster

5

Matter

Anything that has mass and takes up space

6

Volume

The amount of space an object takes up

7

Density

Measures the compactness of a material

8

Mass

The amount of stuff in an object

9

What does an increase in mass yield? A decrease?

Increase in mass=Increase in volume///Decrease in mass=decrease in volume

10

What is the formula for density?

density=mass/volume

11

Differentiation

The phenomenon of substances settling according to their densities

12

Kinetic Energy

Energy in motion

13

The faster the particles, the more _______

Kinetic energy

14

Rocks collided and fused together ______

Earth

15

During the formation of Earth the kinetic energy from rocks transformed into _______

Heat

16

How did Earth's surface solidify?

Collisions from meteors and comets slowed down

17

Why is the interior of the Earth hot today?

Heat from the planets formation, differentiation, and radioactive decay

18

Radioactivity

The phenomenon where unstable atomic nuclei break down and emit particles and heat (radiation)

19

Where does radioactivity occur?

Radioactivity occurs in elements with an imbalance of neutrons and protons

20

Describe an alpha particle

Consists of two protons and has a positive electrical charge. It has a helium nucleus and is very weak

21

Describe a beta particle

An ejected electron from a neutron. It has a smaller mass and electrical charge, but it moves faster. When stopped it becomes an ordinary electron

22

Describe a gamma ray

High frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus at an excited state. It is more harmful than an alpha and beta particle, and it is very strong

23

Half Life

The rate of decay for a radioactive isotope

24

What evidence do we have that Earth has a hot core?

Evidence of volcanoes, faults and geysers, radioactive decay in radioactive elements, and continental plates.

25

Plate Tectonic Theory

Surface of plates that move where geological activities occur

26

Name evidence for Pangaea

Fossils scattered, plates fit together, mountains, etc.

27

Kinetic Theory of Matter

Matter made up of tiny particles always in motion

28

Thermal Energy

The total energy (kinetic or potential) of the particles that make up a substance

29

Kinetic Molecular Theory

All molecules are in motion and the more kinetic energy in the molecules, the faster they move and the farther they spread out

30

What does matter contain and NOT contain?

Matter contains thermal energy, and it does NOT contain heat

31

Where does conduction occur?

Predominately in solids where solids remain restricted

32

In convection, heated water and gas ____.

Rise

33

Catalyst

Speeds up the reaction in an experiment

34

Pure Substance

All particles are identical

35

Mixture

Physical combination of two or more elements or compounds

36

Element

Pure substance made from only one type of element

37

Compound

Pure substances made from two or more types of atoms

38

Molecule

Particle with two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds

39

Compound

Collection of molecules where two or more types of atoms are bonded together and all the molecules are the same

40

Is Ca(NO3)2 a mixture or a compound?

Compound

41

Heterogenous Mixture

Two different elements not evenly dispersed

42

Homogenous Mixture

Two different elements evenly dispersed

43

Physical Change

A change in the physical properties of a substance

44

Chemical Change

The transformation of one or more substances into others

45

What was Earth's first atmosphere composed of and what happened?

Hydrogen and helium, and this was unable to withstand the solar winds

46

Name some possible sources for Earth's atmosphere

Comets and meteorites vaporizing upon impact with Earth

47

Are rocks responsible for rusting?

No

48

What evidence for rust do we have appearing 2 BY ago?

Red beds over 2 BY old, and alternating bands of red (rusted) and black (non rusted) iron

49

What is the equation for Rust?

Fe+O2--->Fe2O3

50

Entropy

The natural tendency of energy to disperse from areas of high to low concentration

51

Exothermic Reaction

A chemical reaction that results in the net production of energy (reactants--->products+energy)

52

Endothermic Reaction

A chemical reaction where there is a net consumption of energy

53

Greenhouse Effect

The warming of the atmosphere that occurs because of the ability of certain atmospheric gasses to absorb and reemit infrared radiation