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Flashcards in Science-Global Patterns Deck (27):
1

The core

The centre of the Earth consisting of two layers. The outer core is molten consisting of an iron-nickel alloy. This layer contributes to the earth's magnetic field. The inner layer is solid iron.

2

Convection currents

A movement of hot material upwards towards cooler regions where it cools and sinks again.

3

Rock Cycle

The continual re-cycling of rocks through weathering, erosion, burial, compacting, melting and uplifting

4

Mantle

The layer directly below the crust. This layer is approximately 2900km thick

5

Subduction

The process in which two or more tectonic plates collide and one plate slides beneath the other.

6

Atmosphere

The process in which two or more tectonic plates collide and one plate slides beneath the other.

7

Geology

The scientific study of the origin, history, structure and composition of the Earth.

8

List of elements making up the earth's crust. % --- highest to lowest

Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminium, Iron, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium

9

Divergent boundary (mid-oceanic ridge)

Where new crust is generated as the plates pull away from each other.

10

Alfred Wegener

The German Scientist who first proposed that the continents had once been one big landmass (Pangea) and had drifted with time (continental drift)

11

The 4 Layers of the earth

Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core

12

S and P waves

Transverse (S waves) and longitudinal (P waves) earthquake waves that travel through the interior of the Earth.

13

Dynamic

Constantly changing, energetic in nature.

14

Crust

The outermost terrestrial layer of the Earth. The sea bed is on average 8km thick consisting of basalt. The continents are on average 40km thick consisting of granite

15

Seismic wave

Energy travelling through the Earth in the form of a longitudinal or transverse wave.

16

Superposition

The law that states that in undisturbed strata, lower layers of rocks are older than those nearer the top

17

Plate tectonics

The theory that explains how the Earth's crust is broken into plates and how they move

18

Geologic period

One of several subdivisions of geologic time allowing cross-referencing of rocks, fossils and geologic events from place to place.

19

Fossil

Any evidence of an organism from a former geological time

20

Tectonics

Relating to the structure of the Earth's crust and the forces and processes which take place within it.

21

Tsunami

A series of 'water waves' caused by an undersea earthquake or volcanic eruption

22

Volcano

A break or rupture in the Earth's crust, which allows magma to escape from deep within the upper mantle.

23

Convergent boundary

An actively deforming region where two (or more) tectonic plates move toward one another and collide. Also known as a destructive plate boundary.

24

Seismology

The scientific study of earthquakes and the internal structure of the Earth.

25

Earthquake

A series of vibrations induced in the Earth's crust by the sudden movement of the Earth's crust caused by the release of stress accumulated along geologic faults or by volcanic activity

26

Transform boundary

Where the crust is neither produced or destroyed as the plates slide horizontally past each other

27

Uniformitarianism

The theory that states that the Earth's surface was shaped in the past by gradual processes.