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Flashcards in Science of the Environment Deck (215)
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1

Which method could be used to separate a mixture of sand and water?

Filtration

2

Describe the properties of a solid.

  • Have a fixed shape
  • Cannot be compressed
  • Have a fixed Volume

3

What is the job of the vacuole?

Contains a cell sap

4

What is the greenhouse effect?

When the Earth's atmosphere traps heat energy from the Sun, raising the temperature of the Earth.

5

Explain how oil was formed

  • Millions of years ago small animals and plants died and fell to the bottom of the sea.
  • Their remains were covered by mud. The mud eventually turned to rock. This rock put a lot of pressure on the dead animals and plants. Rocks around them also heated them up.
  • Together the heat and the pressure turned the remains into crude oil.
  • It was important that no air or oxygen was present.

6

Name 3 fossil fuels

  • Coal
  • Oil
  • Gas
  • Peat

7

What is it called when a liquid becomes a solid?

Freezing

8

Describe the properties of a gas.

  • Spread to fill the volume of the container
  • Take the shape of the container 
  • Can be compressed

9

What is the name of the black powder that was mixed with copper carbonate to make copper in an experiment? 

Carbon

10

What is the job of the chloroplasts?

Contains chlorophyll and are the site of photosynthesis

11

Name three factors that can effect the rate of photosynthesis.

  1. Carbon dioxide concentration
  2. Light Intensity
  3. Temperature

12

State two effects of Global warming on the natural environment

  • Loss of habitat e.g. ice caps melting polar bears losing places to live
  • Desertification - increasing deserts
  • Acidification of sea water
  • Increasing water temperature effecting sea life

13

What was the name of the stain used on the onion slide?

Iodine

14

Which part of a cell is indicated?

Nucleus

15

How would you describe the particles in a solid?

In rows and columns

16

Which part of a cell is the site of all chemical reactions?

Cytoplasm

17

What causes Global Warming?

Increasing carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere

18

Which part of a cell is indicated?

Nucleus

19

·What is a habitat?

The area where a living thing normally lives or occurs

20

Which part of a cell controls the functions of the cell.

Nucleus

21

Which part of a cell is indicated?

Cell Membrane

22

What does this image represent?

Molecules of an element

23

What is it called when a gas becomes a liquid?

Condensation

24

Which gas is produced as a result of photosynthesis?

Oxygen

25

What is the job of the nucleus?

Controls the functions of the cell.

26

Which part of a cell is indicated?

Cytoplasm

27

What is the job of the cytoplasm?

Site of chemical reactions

28

Name three things that plants can be used to provide.

  • Medicines
  • To make material for clothes
  • Timber for Construction
  • Food Dyes
  • Fuel

29

How do plants provide energy for all organisms?

They turn light energy from the sun into sugar during photosynthesis.

30

What can filtration be used for?

To separate an insoluble solid from a liquid

31

What does this image represent?

Mixture of atoms of elements

32

Which part of a cell is indicated?

Vacuole

33

Name three things that a seed needs to grow.

  • Suitable temperature
  • Water
  • Oxygen

34

What is an element?

An element is the basic building block of matter. In an element all the atoms are identical and an element cannot be broken down further.

35

Why are coal and oil called non-rewable?

These resources are called non-renewable because they will one day run out and cannot be replaced

36

Which part of a seed is shown?

Food Store

37

Which part of a cell is indicated?

Chloroplasts

38

Which part of a plant cell gives the cell  it's rigid shape?

Cell wall

39

Which gas is required for photosynthesis?

Carbon Dioxide

40

What happens to some of the energy released by an organism during respiration?

It is converted into heat

41

·What is a food chain?

A diagram showing a set of energy links between plants and animals in a habitat.

42

What is the chemical name for the green powder used in an experiment to make copper?

Copper carbonate

43

Describe the properties of a liquid.

  • Take the shape of the container they are in
  • Cannot be compressed
  • Fixed volume

44

Which method could be used to separate water and alcohol?

Distillation

45

What is it called when a liquid becomes a gas?

Evaporation

46

Which part of a cell is indicated?

Cell Wall

47

What is the equation for photosynthesis?

                                          Light Energy

Carbon dioxide + water         →              Glucose + Oxygen                                            Chlorophyll

 

 

48

What is the name of the part of a leaf that opens and closes to let carbon dioxide in and oxygen and water vapour out of the leaf?

Stomata

49

What is the test for starch?

It turns iodine a blue/black colour

50

Which method of separation is this?

Distillation

51

In the experiment to make copper, how did you know if you had made copper?

A reddish brown substance was formed.

52

State one possible effect of the greenhouse effect on the UK.

  • Raised sea levels could cause flooding in low lying areas
  • UK will have a warmer climate resulting in possible changes to farming etc.

53

Which method of separation is this?

Filtration

54

Which part of a cell contains cell sap?

Vacuole

55

What is a herbivore?

An organism that only eats plants

56

What is a carnivore?

An organism that only eats meat

57

What is the area where a living thing normally lives or occurs called?

A habitat

58

What are the six parts of a plant cell?

  1. Nucleus
  2. Cell membrane
  3. Cell wall
  4. Cytoplasm
  5. Chloroplasts
  6. Vacuole

59

Why can't plants carry out photosynthesis at night?

It is dark so there is no light energy

60

The pH of soil is important. What are neutral soils on the pH scale and what colour would they be?

pH 7

Green

61

In a fertiliser what does the nitrogen do?

Makes plant protein.

62

In a fertiliser what does the phosphorus do?

Used to to make enzymes

63

What is the name given to the process by which green plants make food using light energy from the sun?

Photosynthesis

64

What is it called when a solid becomes a liquid?

Melting

65

What can evaporation be used for?

To separate a soluble solid and a liquid, leaving only the solid.

66

What is an ecosystem?

It is made up of living organisms and their physical environment.

67

Describe the motion of particles in a liquid.

Particles in a liquid can move over each other. 

68

What is the periodic table?

All the elements in the universe, grouped together according to their characteristics.

69

Which method of separation is this?

Chromatography

70

Which method can be used to separate a solid substance froma liquid?

Evaporation

71

How would you describe the particles in a liquid?

Jumbled and able to move over each other.

72

What is an omnivore?

An animal that eats meat and plants

73

What is the job of the cell wall?

To give theplant cell it's rigid shape.

74

In a fertiliser what does the poatssium do?

Controls the rate of reactions such as photosynthesis.

75

What was a stain used to look at the cells in an onion?

To make it easier to see

76

State two ways that you can help reduce global warming.

  • Switching off unused appliances and lights
  • Using public transport
  • Walking / cycling instead of using a car
  • Insulating your house to reduce the heating required

77

Which method could be used to separate the colours of ink in a colouring in pen?

Chromatography

78

What is a solute?

The solid used to make a solution

79

State what is meant by a solvent.

The substance that dissolves the solute

80

The pH of soil is important. What are alkali soils on the pH scale and what colour would they be?

pH 8-14

Blues/Purples

81

What is the name given to copper ore?

Malachite

82

What can distillation be used for?

To separate liquids with different boiling points

83

What is the process by which cells release energy in living things.

Cellular respiration

84

What do the arrows in a food chain show?

The direction of energy flow

85

What is a diagram showing a set of energy links between plants and animals in a habitat.

A food chain

86

Which part of the cell contains chlorophyll to absorb light energy from the Sun for use in photosynthesis?

Chloroplasts

87

What does this image represent?

Atoms of an element

88

State what is meant by a compound.

A compound is formed when 2 or more elements are chemically joined together

89

Which part of a cell controls what enters and exits the cell?

Cell Membrane

90

What can chromatography be used for?

To separate ink/paint colours

91

What does this image represent?

Mixture of molecules of compounds.

92

What is meant by soluble?

a solid that can dissolve

93

The pH of soil is important. What are acidic soils on the pH scale and what colour would they be?

pH 1-6

Red/Orange

94

What does this image represent?

Molecules of a compound

95

What is a solution? 

A solid dissolved in a liquid

96

How would you describe the particles in a gas?

Spread out and able to move away from each other.

97

Explain how coal was formed.

  • Coal formed approximately 300 million years ago from the remains of trees and other vegetation.
  • These remains were trapped on the bottom of swamps, accumulating layer after layer and creating a dense material called peat.
  • As this peat was buried more and more underground, the high temperatures and pressure transformed it into coal.

98

Suggest an example when you might want to control the rate of a reaction.

  • Reducing the speed of rusting
  • Increasing the rate of burning fuel
  • Decreasing the rate that energy is released
  • Increasing the speed of burning

99

What is made up of living organisms and their physical environment?

An ecosystem

100

What is meant by photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis is the name given to the process by which green plants make food using light energy from the sun.

101

What is the job of the cell membrane?

Controls what enters and exits the cell

102

State what is meant by a renewable energy source.

An energy source which will not run out or can be replenished within a human lifetime.

103

List 3 sources of renewable energy

  • Geothermal
  • Hydro-electric
  • Solar
  • Wind

104

State the energy change in a solar cell

Light energy to electrical energy

105

State the energy change in a generator

Kinetic energy to electrical energy

106

A turbine is usually connected to which other mechanical part to produce energy

Generator

107

In a wind turbine, which part is spun by the movement of the wind?

Turbine blades

108

Name the type of energy stored by the water in the dam of a hydro electric power station.

(Gravitational) Potential Energy

109

State the energy change in a hydro-electric power station as the water runs from the dam down to the power station.

Potential energy to kinetic energy

110

Name the part of the hydro-electric power station that is turned by the water.

Turbine

111

In a geothermal power station what is used to heat the water?

Hot rocks in the ground

112

State the energy change in the turbine of a geothermal power station.

Heat energy to kinetic energy

113

State 2 advantages of solar energy

  • Do not produce greenhouse gases
  • Low maintenance
  • Source of energy is free do not need fuel
  • Does not harm the environment
  • Long Lifetime

114

State a disadvantage of solar cells

  • Expensive to install
  • Can take up large areas of ground
  • Not always a reliable output - varying light levels

115

State 2 advantages of hydro-electric energy.

  • Does not produce greenhouse gases
  • No fuel or fuel supply issues
  • Reliable energy output
  • Flexible power output as it can be increased and decreased easily

116

State one disadvantage of hydro-electric energy.

  • Expensive to build
  • Lack of suitable locations to build new power stations
  • Loss of land which is flooded / relocation of people who lived there
  • Changes to water flow downstream can effect the ecosystem or farmers further downstream
  • Droughts can affect operation

117

State two advantages of wind power.

  • Do not produce greenhouse gases
  • Low operational costs
  • Source of energy is free do not need fuel - wind will never run out
  • Can co-exist with other land uses

118

State one disadvantage of wind power

  • Power output is not reliable
  • Noise from rotor blades
  • Light flicker from blades can affect people
  • Considered to be ugly - people object to them in scenic areas
  • Blades can kill bird life
  • Expensive to construct

119

State two advantages of Geothermal Energy.

  • Produces significantly less greenhouse gases than coal, oil or gas produced energy
  • Reliable source of energy
  • Occupy small amount of land
  • Low maintenance costs

120

State one disadvantage of geothermal energy

  • Expensive to build
  • Can pollute and use up a lot of freshwater
  • Limited locations near volcanic regions

121

Metals are all good at 6 things. List them.

  • Good conductors of heat
  • Good conductors of electricity
  • Malleable
  • Shiny
  • Ductile
  • Sonorous

122

Describe a malleable metal.

One capable of being extended or shaped by hammering or by pressure from rollers - a metal that is easy to shape.

123

Describe a ductile material.

A metal that is capable of being drawn out into wire or thread

124

Describe a sonorous material.

When the metal is struck it prduces a sound.

125

Group 1 metals are commonly known as  this.

Alkali Metals

126

State what all Group 1 metals have in common.

They are very reactive.

127

State why alkali metals are stored under oil.

To prevent them reacting with air or water.

128

State the name given to Group 7 metals.

Halogens

129

Give three pieces of information about Group 7 metals.

  • Unreactive
  • Colourful
  • As you go down the group the state changes from gas to solid

130

State the approximate number of elements on the periodic table.

120

131

State what is meant by the noble gases.

A group of unreactive gases.

132

State why elements are grouped on the periodic table.

They are grouped with elements of similar chemical properties.

133

Identify where the 'metal staircase' is on the periodic table.

See Image

134

State what the 'metal staircase' on the periodic table shows you.

All the elements to the left of the staircase are metals, all elements to the right of the staircase are non metals.

135

State 4 ways that a chemical reaction can be identified

  • Colour change
  • Precipitate formed (new substance)
  • Gas released (fizzing and bubbling)
  • Energy change (Change in temperature)

136

State what is meant by a solute.

A substance that is being dissolved.

137

State what is meant by a solution.

When a solute has dissolved in a solvent.

138

State what is meant by soluble.

A substace that will dissolve.

139

Describe how to make a saturated solution.

A soluble solute is added to a solvent until no more can dissolve.

140

State what is meant by a concentrated solution.

A solution with a large mass of solute in it.

141

State what is meant by a dilute solution.

A solution with a small mass of solute in it.

142

State the name given to a solution where there is a  small mass of solute in it.

Dilute

143

State the name given to a solution where there is a  large mass of solute in it.

Concentrated

144

Name 2 pollutants that can enter the water cycle.

  • Plastics
  • Wipes being flushed down toilet
  • Cotton Buds
  • Chemicals
  • Oil poured down sinks
  • Sanitary products being flushed

145

Name the process being described.

"When a solid gains energy, particles vibrates faster and forces of attraction between these molecules are broken"

Melting

146

Describe the process of melting in terms of particles.

When a solid gains energy, particles vibrates faster and forces of attraction between these molecules are broken

147

Name the process being described.

"When a liquid gains more energy, the particles can move faster and break further away from each other."

Evaporation.

148

Describe the process of evaporation in terms of particles.

When a liquid gains more energy, the particles can move faster and break further away from each other

149

Name the process being described.

"When a gas loses energy, the particles slow down and some forces of attraction begin to form."

Condensation

150

Describe the process of condensation in terms of particles.

When a gas loses energy, the particles slow down and some forces of attraction begin to form.

151

Name the process being described.

"When a liquid loses energy, the particles are slow enough to allow forces of attraction to form fully."

Freezing

152

Describe the process of freezing in terms of particles.

When a liquid loses energy, the particles are slow enough to allow forces of attraction to form fully.

153

Explain the water cycle.

  1. Starts in the ocean, where the heat of the Sun evaporates sea water. Tiny droplets of water float in the air (Water vapour).
  2. Water vapour rises into the sky, and as it cools it condenses back into liquid water to make clouds. The wind blows the clouds over land and they drop their water as rain, sleet or snow.
  3. This falls on the land as water, which allows plants to grow and gives us drinking water.
  4. Much of the water then flows into lakes and rivers, and is carried back to the ocean. Then the process begins again. 

154

State the least reactive Group 1 metal.

Lithium

155

Where is lithium situated on the periodic table?

At the top of the Group 1 metals.

156

List the Group 1 metals in order of reactivity. Most reactive first.

  • Potassium
  • Sodium
  • Lithium

157

State what is meant by an element.

An element is a substance that contains only one type of atom.

158

State what is meant by a mixture.

A mixture contains compounds and elements that are not chemically joined

159

Two elements are reacted to make a compound. How will the properties of the compound compare with those of the elements?

The properties of the compound will be different to the properties of the elements.

160

In a chemical word equation where are the reactants?

On the left hand side before the arrow.

161

In a chemical word equation where are the products?

On the right hand side after the arrow.

162

From the word equation identify the reactants.

Copper + Sulphur → Copper Sulphide

Copper and sulphur

163

From the word equation identify the product that would be made:

Sodium + Chlorine→

Sodium Chloride

164

Give an example of a pure substance

  • diamond
  • sulphur
  • water
  • tin
  • sodium chloride

165

Give an example of a mixture

  • Air
  • Salt water
  • Ruby
  • Brass

166

Describe when you would use filtration.

To separate an insoluble solid from a liquid

167

Give an everyday example of filtration

  • To separate sand and water
  • To separate coffe grinds from the liquid

168

Explain how filtration works.

Filter paper has tiny hole in it. Liquid can pass through but the larger particles of the solid get stuck in the filter paper.

169

Describe when you would use filtration.

To separate two liquids that have different boiling points.

170

Give an everyday example of distillation.

  • Separating the parts of crude oil
  • Separating water and methylated spirits
  • Separating water and a dye
  • To make spirits more alcoholic

171

Explain how distillation works.

The mixture is heated. One liquid boils before the other and evaporates. It rises and travels down a delivery tube, where it condenses back into a liquid and drips into a beaker.

172

Describe when you would use chromatography.

To separate different coloured inks, paints, dyes etc.

173

Give an everyday example of chromatography.

  • Identifying inks in a pen
  • Identifying the number of food colourings in a bottle
  • To separate blood stains

174

Explain how chromatography works.

A dot of the substance being tested is put on a piece of chromatography paper. The end of teh chromatography paper is put in a beaker of water. The water is sucjed up the paper and when it reaches the dot the substances colours spread out as they move at different rates.

175

State what is meant by a pure substance.

A pure substance is an element or a compound that has no parts of another compound or element in it.

176

When iron corrodes what substance is produced?

Rust

177

State the two substances required for corrosion to occur.

  1. Oxygen
  2. Water

178

Suggest one way that the rate of corrosion can be increased.

Use salty water.

179

The barrier method is one way to prevent corrosion. What is meant by the 'barrier method'?

Coating the metal surface with a substance so that oxygen and water cannot reach it.

180

Suggest 2 ways of protecting iron using the barrier method.

  • painting
  • coating with plastic
  • electroplating (coat with another metal)
  • galvanising (coat with zinc)

181

State 3 ways of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction

  1. Decrease the particle size
  2. Increase the concentration
  3. Increase the temperature

182

State what is meant by a catalyst.

A chemical that will speed up a reaction but is not used up in the process ad can be recovered.

183

Give one advantage of using a catalyst.

  • Energy costs are reduced for the reaction
  • Increased reaction speed

184

Describe what a catalytic convertor in a car does.

Converts harmful gases in the exhaust (carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides) into less harmful gases (carbon dioxide and nitrogen).

185

State what is meant by an enzyme.

An enzyme is a biological catalyst.

186

Explain why fossil fuels are finite.

They took millions of years to form and humans are using them very quickly so there will be no time for them to regenerate.

187

State what is meant by combustion.

Burning

188

State what is meant by the term fuel.

A fuel is a substance that releases energy when it is burned.

189

List the products produced when fossil fuels are burned.

  • Carbon dioxide (if there is complete combustion)
  • Carbon monoxide (if there is incomplete combustion)
  • Soot

190

Name the gases that contribute to acid rain.

Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides

191

State two effects of acid rain.

  • Kill trees

  • Damage metal structures

  • Damage stone structures

  • Cause leaching, which can kill fish.

192

What are the three parts of an animal cell?

  • Cell membrane
  • Nucleus
  • Cytoplasm

193

Which three parts does a plant cell have but an animal cell doesn't?

  • Chloroplasts
  • Cell Wall
  • Vacuole

194

What food do plants store?

Glucose as starch.

195

Name the chemical used to test for starch.

Iodine

196

Name the substance iodine tests for.

Starch

197

What is the colour change in iodine if starch is present?

Brown to blue / black

198

List 3 ways to reduce your carbon footprint.

  • Walk/cycle instead of using a car
  • Switch off unused appliances
  • Recycle waste correctly
  • Eat locally produced food
  • Don't buy 'fast fashion' clothes
  • Line dry clothes instead of tumble drying
  • Insulate your home
  • Switch to LED lighting
  • Eat less meat

199

State 2 ways carbon dioxide can be removed from the environment.

  • Planting / restoring forrests
  • Planting cover crops when soil is bare
  • Direct Air Capture
  • Seawater Capture
  • Enhanced Weathering

200

State one way that we use carbon dioxide

  • electronics circuit board assembly to clean surfaces
  • manufacture of semiconductor devices
  • used to make urea , methanol, inorganic and organic carbonates, polyurethanes and sodium salicylate.
  • Carbon dioxide is combined with epoxides to create plastics and polymers.
  • It is used for water treatment;
  • to keep food cool (as dry ice);
  • Fire extinguishers

201

State one source of carbon dioxide

  • decomposition,
  • ocean release
  • breathing
  • cement production
  • deforestation
  • burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas.
  • Transport

202

Explain how a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher works.

The carbon dioxide gas is heavier than the oxygen in the air. So the carbon dioxide displaces the oxygen from around the burning fuel. The fire is goes out because the oxygen needed to burn has been replaced by the carbon dioxide gas.

203

Name the group of elements highlighted on the periodic table.

Noble Gases

204

Name the group of elements highlighted on the periodic table.

Alkali Metals

205

Name the group of elements highlighted on the periodic table.

Halogens

206

Explain how natural gas was formed.

  • Natural gas is a product of decomposed organic matter usually from ancient marine microorganisms, deposited over the past 550 million years.
  • This organic matter mixed with mud, silt, and sand on the sea floor, gradually becoming buried over time.
  • It is sealed off in an oxygen-free environment and exposed to increasing amounts of heat and pressure
  • the organic matter underwent a thermal breakdown process that converted it into gas.

207

Name the product.

Copper + oxygen→

Copper Oxide

208

Name the product.

Magnesium + Oxygen→

Magnesium Oxide

209

Name the product.

Potassium + Chlorine→

Potassium Chloride

210

Name the product.

Sodium + Bromine →

Sodium Bromide

211

Why do we sample - for example using a quadrat?

To estimate numbers and type of plant in an area or to see how common or rare certain plants are.

212

State what is meant by an abiotic factor.

Abiotic factors are physical factors which affect the distribution of organisms

213

State one abiotic factor.

  • temperature,
  • pH,
  • light intensity,
  • moisture.

214

State what is meant by a biotic factor.

A biotic factor are ‘living’ factors which can affect the distribution of organisms.

215

State one biotic factor.

  • predators,
  • prey,
  • disease.