Science Test- 1/25/18 Flashcards Preview

Science > Science Test- 1/25/18 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Science Test- 1/25/18 Deck (38):
1

Ice wedging

Ice expands, pushing deeper into rock, then ice melts

2

Abrasion

As it rains and when the wind blows tiny particles it smooths out the rock.

3

Growth of Plants

The roots of different plants break the rock and sidewalks as the roots grow.

4

Actions of Animals

Animals burrow under and climb on top of rocks causing them to become loose and causing them to break.

5

Heating and Cooling

Unequal rates of expansion cause the outside of rocks to break off like flakes.

6

Freezing and Thawing

As water freezes in the cracks of rocks it causes the rock to expand and cause more cracks.

7

What is a powerful agent of both chemical and physical weathering?

Water

8

How does the water shape the land through abrasion?

By the grinding action of particles carried in rivers and stream beds.

9

How does the water shape the land through long shore drift?

Waves move sand from one beach to another.

10

How does the water shape the land through stream erosion?

Creating gullies and deltas by erosion and deposition

11

In the fizz faster activity what did the whole tablet represent?

A whole rock.

12

In the fizz faster activity what did the crushed tablet represent?

Sediment or broken bits of rock

13

In the fizz faster activity what type of weathering did the whole tablet undergo?

Chemical weathering

14

In the fizz faster activity what type of weathering did the crushed tablet undergo?

Mechanical/physical and chemical weathering

15

In the fizz faster activity why did the crushed tablet dissolve faster?

The water could reach every part of the crushed pieces.

16

What is beach replenishment?

When people take sand from one beach and bring it to another since sand was lost due to erosion.

17

What are some reasons people are against beach replenishment?

It is expensive, harms neighboring marine life and it’s not natural

18

What process makes a rock turn into a metamorphic rock?

When they are under intense heat and pressure.

19

Describe Sandstone

Sedimentary; reddish layers; grainy (gritty)

20

Describe Granite

Igneous; coarse; rough

21

Describe obsidian

Igneous; shiny black glass

22

Describe Marble

Metamorphic; white or whitish with crystals

23

Describe shale

Sedimentary; grey; grainy; rough layers

24

Describe pumice

Igneous; light grey; tiny holes; rough

25

Describe slate

Metamorphic; dark grey

26

What processes turn an igneous rock into a sedimentary rock?

1. Weathering
2. Erosion
3. Deposition
4. Compaction

27

How are igneous rocks formed?

From magma or lava that cools and hardens

28

What is the most common rock on Earth?

Basalt

29

What type of rock is basalt?

Igneous

30

Where does basalt form?

The ocean floor

31

Where does sediment come from?

Broken bits of other rocks

32

Name several reasons why sedimentary rocks are the most commonly used rock in construction.

Plentiful, easy to find, don’t have to dig far, soft compared to other rocks making them easy to shape

33

What natural phenomenon is likely to occur near a fault?

Earthquake

34

Why are Earthquakes common in California?

They have several faults in California.

35

What causes the movements of tectonic plates?

Movements in the mantle

36

Explain what is meant by the term sea floor spreading.

Occurs at mid open ridges where new ocean crust forms through cooling lava and gradually moves away from ridge

37

Explain what is meant by the term subduction.

When one tectonic plate slides underneath another as it sinks it melts becoming part of the mantle.

38

Explain how seafloor spreading and subduction can be viewed as a cycle.

As tectonic plates move new crust is formed by seafloor spreading and subduction pushes the plates together part of the crust deforms.