Flashcards in Scientific Criminology Deck (21)
Before the scientific approach to understanding crime, what approach was there?
Classic approach (Classicism)
How long was the original approach to crime prominent, and why did it change?
• Classicism was the main one for ≈100yrs; until science became increasingly prominent
• Darwin’s work became very iconic in understanding humans
• Behaviours were looked at a biological perspective; making biology fundamental
Scientific criminology is a part of positivism. What does this mean?
Scientific criminology uses positivist methods
What did Bottoms (2000) say?
o Methods of natural sciences could & should apply to society
o Science supposed to be emotionless & objective
o What is believed may be different to truth
o Social scientists regard ideas & opinions, as opposed to hypotheses like psychologists/ natural scientists
What does Scientific Criminology argue?
• Criminals are born, they are not mad; Positivism is deterministic
o If you’re a criminal you need treatment, rather than punishment
What's the difference between Classicism and Scientific Criminology, in terms of the Style of Researchers?
Classicism involves Armchair Researchers
Scientific Criminologists measure behaviour and characteristics
What's the difference between Classicism and Scientific Criminology, in terms of the Object of Study?
For classicism, it's The Offence
For scientific crim, it's The Offender
According to Classicism and Scientific Criminology, what is the Nature of the Offender?
Scientific Crim: Determined
What's the difference between Classicism and Scientific Criminology, in terms of their Reaction to Crime?
Classicism: Punishment -
Proportional to crime
Scientific Crim: Treatment - tailored to individual
What is the Similarities and Differences of Classicism and Scientific Criminology?
•S: Both look at criminal behaviour
•D: Classicism is interested in the offence, whereas scientific more interested in the offender
•D: Classicism states that all humans have free will, scientific states those that are criminals don’t have free will
Who was key criminologist thinker Cesar Lembroso, and what did he do?
• Known as the founding father of criminology
• Claimed to have found a new science – the science of criminology
• Because criminology is biological, some are pro-determined to crime; which he said you could tell by face
• Born criminals is an atavistic comeback to prehistoric society
o These atavistic people were breeding in the countryside & city
Who and what was Cesar Lembroso inspired by?
• Inspired by contemporary science & Darwinism
• Also influenced by phrenology/craniology – skull
• Also influenced by physiognomy – face & appearance
What biological traits did Lombroso claim a criminal had?
• unusual size or shape of the head,
• strange eyes,
• facial asymmetry,
• extended jaw and jaw bone,
• too big or too small ears,
• full lips leaned forward,
• abnormal teeths,
• wrinkled skin,
• nose curled up; thieves have a flat nose and murderers have a beak nose,
• too long, too small or flat chin,
• dark skin and
• too long arms.
What was Lombroso's classification of different criminals?
1. Born criminal
2. Insane criminal.
3. Criminal by passion.
a. Political criminal.
4. Occasional criminal
a. Pseudo criminal
b. Habitual criminal.
What is meant by an 'Epileptic Criminal'?
Epileptic criminals cannot control their actions because of their epilepsy.
What is meant by an 'Insane Criminal'?
Stupid, idiotic, epileptic, alcoholics, imbeciles, paranoids, melancholics, paralytics, demented persons and hysterics
"General forms of criminal insanity, imbecility, melancholia, general paralysis, dementia, monomania - Physical and psychic characters of the mentally deranged - Special forms of criminal insanity - Inebriate lunatics from in- ebriation - Physical and psychic characters - Specific crimes - Epileptic lunatics - Manifestations - Hysterical lunatics - Physical and functional characters - Psychology. "
What is meant by a 'Born Criminal'?
atavistic, different features – Those who possess 5 or more biological features. Accounts for 30% of all criminals
"Classical and modern schools of penal jurisprudence- Physical anomalies of the born criminal - Senses and functions - Psychology - Intellectual " manifestations - The criminal in proverbial sayings."
What is meant by an 'Occassional Criminal'?
They don't commit crime much/ only on occasions
What is meant by a 'Criminaloid'?
Psychology - Tardy adoption of criminal career - Repent- ance - Confession - Moral sense and affections - Habitual criminals - Juridical criminals - Criminals of passion.
In what work did Cesar Lombroso discuss the classification of criminals?
Criminal Man, According to the Classification of Cesare Lombroso Briefly summarised by his daughter, Gina Lombroso Ferrero, with an introduction by Cesare Lombroso. New York and London. 1911