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Flashcards in Scientific Foundations: Nursing Science- Done Deck (38):
0

In the mid-1800s, ----------- established public health as an important focus for nursing

Florence Nightingale

1

Main focuses of Florence Nightingale

1. Emphasized need to improve environmental conditions to protect health of clients
2. Preventative rather than curative health services
3. Used statistical techniques to demonstrate relationship between unsanitary conditions and preventable deaths
4. Developed record keeping system that enabled her to improve conditions

2

Florence Nightingale's five elements necessary for good health

1. Pure air
2. Pure water
3. Efficient drainage
4. Cleanliness
5. Light

3

Areas influenced by Florence Nightingale

1. Public health
2. Laid foundation for occupational and environmental health nursing
3. Development of nursing theory
4. Development of nursing research
5. Nursing education

4

Intervention Wheel

1. Revision of Public Health Intervention Model
2. Describes the application of nursing practice to populations
3. Based on actual work performed by public health nurses

5

According to the Intervention Wheel population-based practice...

1. Focuses of populations
2. Relies on community assessment
3. Considers all determinants of health
4. Emphasizes prevention
5. Intervenes at multiple levels

6

Intervention Wheel: Three levels of practice

1. Community
2. Systems
3. Individuals/families

7

Intervention Wheel

Public health practice is described by --- types of interventions, grouped into ----- general areas or "wedges"

17
5

8

Intervention Wheel: Interventions in area one

1. Surveillance
2. Disease and other health event investigation
3. Outreach
4. Screening
5. Case finding

9

Intervention Wheel: Interventions in area two

1. Referral and follow-up
2. Case management
3. Delegated functions

10

Intervention Wheel: Interventions in area three

1. Health teaching
2. Counseling
3. Consultation

11

Intervention Wheel: Interventions in area four

1. Collaboration
2. Coalition building
3. Community organizing

12

Intervention Wheel: Interventions in area five

1. Advocacy
2. Social marketing
3. Policy development and enforcement

13

Nursing, Health and the Environment

-Landmark publication
-Defines and describes the role of nurses in environmental health

14

Definition of environmental health from Nursing, Health and the Environment

Freedom from illness or injury related to exposure to toxic agents and other environmental conditions that are potentially detrimental to health

15

Three themes of Nursing, Health and the Environment

1. The environment is a primary determinant of health, and environmental health hazards affect all aspects of life and all areas of nursing practice
2. Nurses are well positioned to address environmental health concerns of individuals and communities
3. There is need to enhance the awareness of and emphasis on environmental threats to the health of populations served by all nurses regardless of their practice

16

Working population is characterized by...

1. Generally healthy enough to hold a job
2. Of working age
3. Often of child eating age

17

Occupational and environmental health busing interventions should be...

1. Population based
2. Supported by evidence
3. Reflect best practices

18

Nurses who establish, publicize, and monitor heavy metal screening programs and registries, followed by case finding, are performing...

1. Surveillance
2. Investigation
3. Outreach
4. Screening

19

-----, ------, ------- are accomplished at all three levels when occupational and environmental health nurses work with -----, ----, ------ to identify cases of tuberculosis, prevented further spread of disease, and ensure treatment for those infected

Referral
Case management
Delegated functions

Health departments
Worker populations
High risk individuals

20

----, -----, ------ take place through nursing activities aimed at informing health care providers and members of rural communities about risks of agricultural hazards and health effect prevention

Teaching
Counseling
Consultation

21

Partnerships with ----, ----, -----, and ------ to create safe play areas for urban children address the intervention areas of -----, -----, and ------

Local health departments
Community organizations
Neighborhood residents
Parents

Collaboration
Coalition building
Community organizing

22

The areas of ----, ----, and ------ are exemplified by nursing practices that promote and enforce employers policies to prevent the transmission of workplace hazards into the home environment

Advocacy
Social marketing
Policy development

23

Examples of employer policies to prevent transmission of workplace hazards to home environment

1. Clothing changes
2. Shower facilities
3. Worker training

24

Factors that determine the health of individuals and populations

1. Biological factors
2. Behaviors
3. Social environment
4. Physical environment
5. Additional determinants

25

Examples of biological factors

1. Genetic background
2. Physical health status
3. Mental health status

26

How behaviors determine health of individuals/populations

Behaviors occur in response to an individual's experiences and may either cause biological changes or be influenced by biology

27

(Behavior) may cause lung disease (biology)

Smoking

28

(Biology) may lead to avoidance of sun exposure (behavior)

Fair complexion

29

Examples of social environment

1. Interaction with others
2. Housing and community services
3. Institutions such as school and places of worship

30

Physical environment can be sources of exposure to....

1. Chemicals
2. Pathogens
3. Physical hazards

31

Additional determinants of health are...

1. Policies and interventions that relate to health behaviors and health outcomes
2. Access to quality care

32

Hazard

A substance capable of causing harm

33

Risk

The probability that harm will occur

34

What provides a basis for preventing morbidity and mortality and promoting health in a broad range of settings?

A systematic understanding of the relationships among health determinants and the principles that govern the association between hazards and health effects

35

Domains in which relationships between health determinants and the principles that govern the association between hazards and health effects apply

1. Workers
2. Work related exposures
3. Work environments
4. Influence if industrial conditions on family and community members

36

Approaches to ------- and -------- similar to those used in the workplace can be used to protect the health of communities faced with natural or man made hazards in media such as food, air, soil and water

Risk assessment
Principles of health protection

37

The chief disciplines that assist the occupational and environmental health nurse to understand the agent-host-environment relationship are....

1. Epidemiology
2. Toxicology
3. Industrial hygiene

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