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Flashcards in scientific revolution etc. Deck (75):
1

heliocentric theory

planets and stars revolve around the sun

2

geocentric theory

sun, moon, and stars revolve around the earth

3

philosophes

french writers who began to challenge 1700s ideals during the enlightenment

4

laissez-faire

non intervention of government in the affairs of businesses

5

salon

gatherings of the social, political, and cultural elite in France during the Enlightenment (where people danced, ate, discussed and debated issues of the day)

6

deism

the belief that God created the universe, set it in motion, then allowed it to run without His interference, according to His natural laws
science replaced God during the enlightenment

7

social contract

an agreement people make to create a government. in it, they give up some of their liberties in exchange for laws that protect their rights.

8

state of nature

a situation in which there is an absence of rules, laws, or an authority figure

9

divine right of kings

the belief that monarchs receive their right to rule from God , and are accountable only to God.

10

restoration

period after the english revolution where a new parliament asked Charles II to come back to rule
then Charles died with no heirs and James II came to the throne

11

habeas corpus

passed during the restoration
“you should have the body”
a legal action where the court is asked to release a person who has been unlawfully put in jail

12

popular sovereignty

a belief that ultimate power resides in the people

13

unalienable rights/natural rights

life liberty and property

14

old regime

nickname was given to the political, social, and economic system in France left over from the Middle Ages
has three estates

15

guillotine

a machine widely used during the reign of terror to behead people
called the “national razor”

16

sans cullottes

urban, poor and self described patriots
the group the national assembly considered most radical

17

suffrage

the right to vote

18

reign of terror

20,000-40,000 people were executed
most radical phase of the french revolution
led by the committee of public safety

19

1st Coalition

an army that attacked revolutionary french forces from the combined nations of
England
Portugal
Spain
Austria
Prussia

20

bourgeoisie

the middle class within the 3rd estate: merchants, businessmen, lawyers, doctors, and writers

21

coup d’état

a sudden overthrow of a country by a military force (napoleon was the first person to do this)

22

scorched earth policy

russians burned everything leaving nothing napoleons army could live off of

23

copernicus

first to propose the heliocentric theory-that the earth was not the center of the universe
wrote “concerning the revolution of the celestial spheres”

24

galileo

“father of experimental science”
invented the telescope
published “the starry messenger”
the church brought galileo before an inquisition and forced him to recant

25

newton

wrote “principles of mathematics”
(calculus)
best known for his laws of:
optics
gravity
motion
inertia

26

boyle

worked on the properties of gases
boyle’s law: volume of a gas varies with the pressure exerted on it

27

edward jenner

invented vaccinations for small pox

28

descartes

“father of rationalism”
i think therefore i am

29

bacon

scientific method

30

harvey

how the heart circulated blood through the body

31

hobbes

supported the rule of a strong king
wrote “leviathan”
said that life is “nasty, brutish and short”

32

locke

first to discuss the natural rights of man
had a strong influence on jefferson

33

montesquieu

credited with the principle of separation of powers and checks and balances

34

rousseau

all men are created equal and the majority should rule

35

adam smith

founder of economics, capitalism and free trade
proposed laissez-faire

36

william blackstone

“commentaries in the laws of england”
common law

37

mary wollstonecraft

womens rights

38

cesare beccaria

cruel and unusual punishment should be abolished

39

voltaire

advocated:
religious freedom
free speech
tolerance and reason

40

thomas jefferson

wrote the declaration of independence

41

george washington

commander and chief if the continental army against the british
president of the constitutional convention and 1st president of the usa

42

lafayette

wrote the declaration of the rights of man and the citizen which expressed the enlightenment ideas of liberty, property, speech and religion

43

marie antoinette

extravagant spender and didn’t care about her peoples problems
married to king louis xvi
unpopular
“if the people have no bread to eat, let them eat cake”

44

king louis xvi (16)

doubled the debt of france by loaning money to the american revolution

45

danton

radical leader of the people
appointed minister of justice
turned in by ropespierre and executed

46

marat

published radical journal “friend of the people”
believed in mob violence
stabbed to death in his bathtub by charlotte cordray

47

maximilian robespierre

leader if the committee of public safety
killed thousands during terror
“the incorruptible”

48

napoleon

“man that saved the revolution”
emperor of france
coup d’état
restored order after the reign of terror

49

duke of wellington

“the greatest man england ever produced” - queen victoria
defeated napoleon at water loo

50

josephine bonaparte

napoleons love
first wife
but no kids

51

lord horatio nelson

great britain’s greatest naval hero
won trafalgar which meant that england controlled the mediterranean sea

52

what happened to galileo

the church put him through an inquisition where he was forced to recant and then put on house arrest until he died

53

contributions of newton

calculus
laws of gravity
motion
inertia

54

natural rights locke said to protect

life
liberty
property

55

locked radical idea if the government fails to protect the people’s unalienable rights

revolt and replace the ruler or government

56

two sides of the english civil war

puritans vs. royalist

cromwell’s new model army won

war started when king charles i tried to jail his enemies

57

puritans

“roundheads”
led by oliver cromwell
the new model army

58

royalists

“cavaliers”
led by king charles i

59

outcome of the english civil war

king charles lost
he was tried and beheaded
oliver cromwell riled as a military dictator for nine years tried to set up a republic but failed

60

restoration

monarchy restored to england by king charles ii

61

glorious revolution

parliament left king james ii
william and mary of the netherlands were invited to rule england

62

why was the glorious revolution glorious?

no shots were fired (it was bloodless)
it ended the divine right of kings
the new king and queen were willing to share power with parliament

63

declaration of independence

started the american revolution
written by jefferson
july 4, 1776

64

how did george washington save the american revolution at the crisis of newburgh?

the army had not been paid and washington’s officers wanted to march on congress to make him king
he resigned voluntarily giving up power and returning home
same with after serving two terms

65

3 estates of the old regime

social classes in france
1st- clergy/church
2nd- nobility
3rd- the people of france (largest population)

66

3 classes within the 3rd estate

bourgeoisie (middle class)
workers
peasants (80%)

67

causes of the french revolution

extravagant spending and privileges of nobility
philosophers of the enlightenment
influence if the american revolution
king louis the 16th was incompetent and unable to repair frances damaged economy

68

storming of the bastille

july 14 1789
formal start if the french revolution and symbol

69

what happened to king louis xvi and marie antoinette

they were sent to the guillotine

70

what started and ended the reign of terror

started: jean paul marat was stabbed in his bathtub
ended: robespierre was executed

71

motto of the french revolution

liberty, equality, fraternity

72

napoleon’s proudest and longest lasting achievement

napoleonic code or french civil code
codified laws for france

73

how did napoleon come to power

seized power over france in a coup

74

#1 mistake by napoleon

invaded russia in june and lost the bulk of his army

75

battle of water loo

june 18 1815
france vs. great britain and prussia
napoleon vs. duke of wellington
wellington won